1200s & 1300s Military History Timeline

1201-1400

Robert the Bruce. Public Domain

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1200s

  • 1202-1204 - Fourth Crusade: Crusaders intend to strike at the Holy Land through Egypt, but instead sack Constantinople
  • 1203-1205 - English-French Wars: Philip II conquers Normandy and Poitou
  • 1209-1229 - Albigensian Crusade: French and Crusader forces crush the Cathar heretics in southern France

1210s

  • 1211-1234 - Mongol-Jin Dynasty War: Mongol forces successfully invade northern China
  • July 16, 1212 - The Reconquista: Spanish forces defeat the Moors at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
  • May 30-31, 1213 - English-French Wars: An English fleet defeats the French at the Battle of Damme
  • July 27, 1214 - War of Bouvines: Philip II of France defeats a coalition led by John I of England at the Battle of Bouvines
  • 1218-1221 - Fifth Crusade: Crusaders capture Damietta, but are forced to return it after being defeated near Cairo

1220s

  • 1220 - Mongol Invasions: Mongol armies, under the guidance of Genghis Khan, sack Samarkand
  • July 22, 1227 - Wars of Valdemar: Valdemar II is defeated at the Battle of Bornhöved
  • 1228-1229 - Sixth Crusade: Emperor Frederick II negotiates for control of Jerusalem

1230s

  • 1231-1283 - Northern Crusades: Following the Papal Golden Bull of Rimini, the Teutonic Knights begin the conquest of heathen Prussia
  • November 27, 1237 - Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines: Emperor Frederick II beats the Lombard League at the Battle of Cortenuova

    1240s

      1250s

      • February 8-11, 1250 - Seventh Crusade: Crusader forces led by Louis IX are beaten at the Battle of Al Mansurah
      • April 6, 1250 - Seventh Crusade: Louis IX and his army are forced to surrender after the Battle of Fariskur

      1260s

      • September 3, 1260 - Mongol Invasions: Mongol forces are defeated by the Mamalukes at the Battle of Ain Jalut
      • 1260-1279 - Mongol-Sung Dynasty War: Mongol force invade and overrun southern China
      • May 14, 1264 - Second Barons' War: Prince Edward (future Edward I) is captured at the Battle of Lewes
      • August 4, 1265 - Second Barons' War: Having escaped, Prince Edward wins the Battle of Evesham effectively ending the conflict
      • February 26, 1266 - Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines: Charles of Anjou defeats Manfred of Sicily at the Battle of Benevento
      • August 23, 1268 - Wars of the Guelphs and Ghibellines: Charles of Anjou defends Sicily from Conrad V by winning the Battle of Tagliacozzo

      1270s

      • 1270 - Eighth Crusade: Louis IX attacks into Tunisia, but dies shortly after the campaign begins
      • 1277-1284 - Britain: Edward I invades and conquers Wales
      • August 26, 1278 - Holy Roman Empire: Rudolph of Habsburg wins the Battle of Marchfeld over Ottokar II of Bohemia

      1280s

      • August 5-6, 1284 - Pisa-Genoa War: Genoa defeats Pisa at the Battle of Meloria and gains Corsica

        1290s

        • May 18, 1291 - Mamaluke-Crusader Wars: The siege of Acre ends with the city's capture, effectively ending the Crusader presence in the Holy Land
        • July 14, 1291 - Holy Roman Empire: Albert I of Hapsburg defeats Albrecht of Nassau at the Battle of Göllheim
        • April 27, 1296 - First War of Scottish Independence: Scottish forces are beaten at the Battle of Dunbar
        • September 11, 1297 - First War of Scottish Independence: Sir William Wallace defeats the English at the Battle of Stirling Bridge
        • July 22, 1298 - First War of Scottish Independence: Edward I wins the Battle of Falkirk over Wallace
        • September 9, 1298 - Genoa-Venice War: The Genoese fleet defeats the Venetians at the Battle of Curzola

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        1300s

        • July 11, 1302 - French Invasion of Flanders: Flemish forces win the Battle of the Golden Spurs which results in de facto autonomy
        • June 19, 1306 - First War of Scottish Independence: The army of Robert the Bruce is surprised and beaten at the Battle of Methven
        • May 10, 1307 - First War of Scottish Independence: Robert the Bruce defeats the Earl of Pembroke at the Battle of Loudon Hill

          1310s

          • June 24, 1314 - First War of Scottish Independence: Robert the Bruce routs the English at the Battle of Bannockburn
          • November 15, 1315 - Swiss Confederation: Swiss troops defeat Leopold of Austria at the Battle of Morgarten

          1320s

          • March 16, 1322 - Despenser War: The Earl of Lancaster is defeated and captured at the Battle of Boroughbridge

          1330s

          • August 10/11, 1332 - Second War of Scottish Independence: Those supporting the claim of Edward Balliol for the Scottish throne win the Battle of Dupplin Moor
          • July 19, 1333 - Second War of Scottish Independence: Edward III beats the Scots at the Battle of Halidon Hill

          1340s

          • June 24, 1340 - Hundred Years' War: Edward III wins a naval victory at the Battle of Sluys
          • October 30, 1340 - The Reconquista: Spanish and Portuguese forces defeat the Marinids at the Battle of Río Salado
          • August 26, 1346 - Hundred Years' War: The English severely beat the French at the Battle of Crécy
          • October 17, 1346 - Second War of Scottish Independence: David II of Scotland is defeated and captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross

          1350s

          • August 29, 1350 - Hundred Years' War: An English fleet defeats a Castilian fleet led by Don Carlos de la Cerda at the Battle of Winchelsea (Sandwich)
          • September 19, 1356 - Hundred Years' War: Edward, the Black Prince routs the French at the Battle of Poitiers

            1360s

            • April 3, 1367 - Hundred Years' War: English forces aid Pedro of Castile in winning the Battle of Nájera

            1370s

            • February 17/18, 1370 - Northern Crusades: The Teutonic Knights defeat the Duchy of Lithuania at the Battle of Rudau
            • December 1370 - Hundred Years' War: French forces beat the English at the Battle of Pontvallain
            • June 22, 1372 - Hundred Years' War: A Franco-Castilian fleet defeats the English at the Battle of La Rochelle

            1380s

            • November 27, 1382 - Hundred Years' War: Charles VI defeats Flemish forces at the Battle of Roosebeke
            • August 14, 1385 - Portuguese Crisis: John I wins the Battle of Aljubarrota securing Portugal's independence under his rule
            • July 9, 1386 - Swiss Confederation: Swiss troops win the Battle of Sempach over Duke Leopold III of Austria
            • August 5, 1388 - Anglo-Scottish Wars: Scottish forces win the Battle of Otterburn
            • June 28, 1389 - Ottoman Wars: Serb, Bosnian, and Albanian forces are defeated by the Ottomans at the Battle of Kosovo

            1390

            • June 18, 1391 - Tokhtamysh-Timur War: Timur (Tamerlane) wins the Battle of the Kondurcha River
            • April 14, 1395 - Tokhtamysh-Timur War: Timur defeats Tokhtamysh at the Battle of the Terek River
            • September 25, 1396 - Ottoman-Hungarian Wars: The Ottomans defeat an alliance of European nations at the Battle of Nicopolis
            • December 1398 - Campaigns of Timur: Timur captures and sacks Delhi

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