1800s Military History

Military Action From 1801 to 1900

Battle of Austerlitz
Battle of Austerlitz. Public Domain

The documentation of military history begins with the battle near Basra, Iraq, circa 2700 B.C., between Sumer, now known as Iraq, and Elam, called Iran today. Learn about wars of invasion, revolutions, wars of independence, and others, and track the guideline below to learn more about military history.

Military History

February 9, 1801 - French Revolutionary Wars: The War of the Second Coalition ends when the Austrians and French sign the Treaty of Lunéville

May 1801 - First Barbary War: Tripoli, Tangier, Algiers, and Tunis declare war on the United States

March 25, 1802 - French Revolutionary Wars: Fighting between Britain and France ends with the Treaty of Amiens

May 18, 1803 - Napoleonic Wars: Fighting resumes between Britain and France

January 1, 1804 - Haitian Revolution: The 13-year war ends with the declaration of Haitian independence

February 16, 1804 - First Barbary War: American sailors sneak into Tripoli harbor and burn the captured frigate USS Philadelphia

March 17, 1805 - Napoleonic Wars: Austria joins the Third Coalition and declares war on France, with Russia joining a month later

June 10, 1805 - First Barbary War: The conflict ends when a treaty is signed between Tripoli and the United States

October 16-19, 1805 - Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon is victorious at the Battle of Ulm

October 21, 1805 - Napoleonic Wars: Vice Admiral Nelson crushes the combined Franco-Spanish fleet at the Battle of Trafalgar

December 2, 1805 - Napoleonic Wars: The Austrians and Russians are crushed by Napoleon at the Battle of Austerlitz

December 26, 1805 - Napoleonic Wars: The Austrians sign the Treaty of Pressburg, ending the War of the Third Coalition

February 6, 1806 - Napoleonic Wars: The Royal Navy wins the Battle of San Domingo

Summer 1806 - Napoleonic Wars: The Fourth Coalition of Prussia, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, and Britain is formed to fight France

October 15, 1806 - Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon and French forces defeat the Prussians at the Battles of Jena and Auerstädt

February 7-8, 1807 - Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon and Count von Bennigsen fight to a draw at the Battle of Eylau

June 14, 1807 - Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon routs the Russians at the Battle of Friedland, forcing Tsar Alexander to sign the Treaty of Tilsit that effectively ended the War of the Fourth Coalition

June 22, 1807 - Anglo-American Tensions: HMS Leopard fires on USS Chesapeake after the American ship refused to be allowed to be searched for British deserters

May 2, 1808 - Napoleonic Wars: The Peninsular War begins in Spain when the citizens of Madrid rebel against French occupation

August 21, 1808 - Napoleonic Wars: Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur Wellesley defeats the French at the Battle of Vimeiro

January 18, 1809 - Napoleonic Wars: British forces evacuate northern Spain after the Battle of Corunna

April 10, 1809 - Napoleonic Wars: Austria and Britain begin the War of the Fifth Coalition

April 11-13, 1809 - Napoleonic Wars: The Royal Navy wins the Battle of the Basque Roads

June 5-6, 1809 - Napoleonic Wars: The Austrians are defeated by Napoleon at the Battle of Wagram

October 14, 1809 - Napoleonic Wars: The Treaty of Schönbrunn ends the War of the Fifth Coalition in a French victory

May 3-5, 1811 - Napoleonic Wars: British and Portuguese forces hold at the Battle of Fuentes de Oñoro

March 16-April 6, 1812 - Napoleonic Wars: The Earl of Wellington lays siege to the city of Badajoz

June 18, 1812 - War of 1812: The United States declares war on Britain, beginning the conflict

June 24, 1812 - Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon and the Grande Armée cross the Neman River, beginning the invasion of Russia

August 16, 1812 - War of 1812: British forces win the Siege of Detroit

August 19, 1812 - War of 1812: USS Constitution captures HMS Guerriere to give the United States the first naval victory of the war

September 7, 1812 - Napoleonic Wars: The French defeat the Russians at the Battle of Borodino

September 5-12, 1812 - War of 1812: American forces hold out during the Siege of Fort Wayne

December 14, 1812 - Napoleonic Wars: After a long retreat from Moscow, the French army leaves Russian soil

January 18-23, 1812 - War of 1812: American forces are beaten at the Battle of Frenchtown

Spring 1813 - Napoleonic Wars: Prussia, Sweden, Austria, Britain, and a number of the German states form the Sixth Coalition to take advantage of France's defeat in Russia

April 27, 1813 - War of 1812: American forces win the Battle of York

April 28-May 9, 1813 - War of 1812: The British are repulsed at Siege of Fort Meigs

May 2, 1813 - Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon defeats Prussian and Russian forces at the Battle of Lützen

May 20-21, 1813 - Napoleonic Wars: Prussian and Russian forces are beaten at the Battle of Bautzen

May 27, 1813 - War of 1812: American forces land and capture Fort George

June 6, 1813 - War of 1812: American troops are beaten at the Battle of Stoney Creek

June 21, 1813 - Napoleonic Wars: British, Portuguese, and Spanish forces under Sir Arthur Wellesley defeat the French at the Battle of Vitoria

August 30, 1813 - Creek War: Red Stick warriors conduct the Fort Mims Massacre

September 10, 1813 - War of 1812: U.S. naval forces under Commodore Oliver H. Perry defeat the British at the Battle of Lake Erie

October 16-19, 1813 - Napoleonic Wars: Prussian, Russian, Austrian, Swedish, and German troops defeat Napoleon at the Battle of Leipzig

October 26, 1813 - War of 1812: American forces are held at the Battle of the Chateauguay

November 11, 1813 - War of 1812: American troops are beaten at the Battle of Crysler's Farm

August 30, 1813 - Napoleonic Wars: Coalition forces defeat the French at the Battle of Kulm

March 27, 1814 - Creek War: Maj. Gen. Andrew Jackson wins the Battle of Horseshoe Bend

March 30, 1814 - Napoleonic Wars: Paris falls to coalition forces

April 6, 1814 - Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon abdicates and is exiled to Elba by the Treaty of Fontainebleau

July 25, 1814 - War of 1812: American and British forces fight the Battle of Lundy's Lane

August 24, 1814 - War of 1812: After defeating American forces at the Battle of Bladensburg, British troops burn Washington, D.C.

September 12-15, 1814 - War of 1812: British forces are defeated at the Battle of North Point and Fort McHenry

December 24, 1814 - War of 1812: The Treaty of Ghent is signed, ending the war

January 8, 1815 - War of 1812: Unaware that the war has ended, Gen. Andrew Jackson wins the Battle of New Orleans

March 1, 1815 - Napoleonic Wars: Landing at Cannes, Napoleon returns to France beginning the Hundred Days after escaping from exile

June 16, 1815 - Napoleonic Wars: Napoleon wins his final victory at the Battle of Ligny

June 18, 1815 - Napoleonic Wars: Coalition forces led by the Duke of Wellington (Arthur Wellesley) defeat Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo, ending the Napoleonic Wars

August 7, 1819 - Wars of South American Independence: Gen. Simon Bolivar defeats Spanish forces in Colombia at the Battle of Boyaca

March 17, 1821 - Greek War of Independence: The Maniots at Areopoli declare war on the Turks, beginning the Greek War of Independence

1825 - Java War: Fighting begins between the Javanese under Prince Diponegoro and Dutch colonial forces

October 20, 1827 - Greek War of Independence: An allied fleet defeats the Ottomans at the Battle of Navarino

1830 - Java War: The conflict ends in a Dutch victory after Prince Diponegoro is captured

April 5-August 27, 1832 - Blackhawk War: U.S. troops defeat an alliance of Native American forces in Illinois, Wisconsin, and Missouri

October 2, 1835 - Texas Revolution: The war begins with a Texan victory at the Battle of Gonzales

December 28, 1835 - Second Seminole War: Two companies of U.S. soldiers under Maj. Francis Dade are massacred by the Seminoles in the first action of the conflict

March 6, 1836 - Texas Revolution: After 13 days of siege, the Alamo falls to Mexican forces

March 27, 1839 - Texas Revolution: Texan prisoners of war are executed at the Goliad Massacre

April 21, 1836 - Texas Revolution: The Texan army under Sam Houston defeats the Mexicans at the Battle of San Jacinto, winning independence for Texas

December 28, 1836 - War of the Confederation: Chile declares war on the Peru-Bolivian Confederation, beginning the conflict

December 1838 - First Afghan War: A British army unit under Gen. William Elphinstone marches into Afghanistan, starting the war

August 23, 1839 - First Opium War: British forces capture Hong Kong in the opening days of the war

August 25, 1839 - War of the Confederation: Following defeat at the Battle of Yungay, the Peru-Bolivian Confederation is dissolved, ending the war

January 5, 1842 - First Afghan War: Elphinstone's army is destroyed as it retreats from Kabul

August 1842 - First Opium War: After winning a string of victories, the British force the Chinese to sign the Treaty of Nanjing

January 28, 1846 - First Anglo-Sikh War: British forces defeat the Sikhs at the Battle of Aliwal

April 24, 1846 - Mexican-American War: Mexican forces rout a small U.S. cavalry detachment in the Thornton Affair

May 3-9, 1846 - Mexican-American War: American forces hold out during the Siege of Fort Texas

May 8-9, 1846 - Mexican-American War: U.S. forces under Brig. Gen. Zachary Taylor defeat the Mexicans at the Battle of Palo Alto and the Battle of Resaca de la Palma

February 22, 1847 - Mexican-American War: After capturing Monterrey, Taylor defeats Mexican Gen. Antonio López de Santa Anna at the Battle of Buena Vista

March 9-September 12, 1847 - Mexican-American War: Landing at Vera Cruz, U.S. forces led by Gen. Winfield Scott conduct a brilliant campaign and capture Mexico City, effectively ending the war

April 18, 1847 - Mexican-American War: American troops win the Battle of Cerro Gordo

August 19-20, 1847 - Mexican-American War: The Mexicans are routed at the Battle of Contreras

August 20, 1847 - Mexican-American War: U.S. forces triumph at the Battle of Churubusco

September 8, 1847 - Mexican American War: American forces win the Battle of Molino del Rey

Septebmer 13, 1847 - Mexican-American War: U.S. troops capture Mexico City after the Battle of Chapultepec

March 28, 1854 - Crimean War: Britain and France declare war on Russia in support of the Ottoman Empire

September 20, 1854 - Crimean War: British and French forces win the Battle of Alma

September 11, 1855 - Crimean War: After an 11-month siege, the Russian port of Sevastopol falls to British and French troops

March 30, 1856 - Crimean War: The Treaty of Paris ends the conflict

October 8, 1856 - Second Opium War: Chinese officials board the British ship Arrow, leading to the outbreak of hostilities

October 6, 1860 - Second Opium War: Anglo-French forces capture Beijing, effectively ending the war

April 12, 1861 - American Civil War: Confederate forces open fire on Fort Sumter, beginning the Civil War

June 10, 1861 - American Civil War: Union troops are beaten at the Battle of Big Bethel

July 21, 1861 - American Civil War: In the first major battle of the conflict, Union forces are defeated at Bull Run

August 10, 1861 - American Civil War: Confederate forces win the Battle of Wilson's Creek

August 28-29, 1861 - American Civil War: Union forces capture Hatteras Inlet during the Battle of Hatteras Inlet Batteries

October 21, 1861 - American Civil War: Union troops are beaten at the Battle of Ball's Bluff

November 7, 1861 - American Civil War: Union and Confederate forces fight the inconclusive Battle of Belmont

November 8, 1861 - American Civil War: Capt. Charles Wilkes removed two Confederate diplomats from RMS Trent, inciting the Trent Affair

January 19, 1862 - American Civil War: Brig. Gen. George H. Thomas wins the Battle of Mill Springs

February 6, 1862 - American Civil War: Union forces capture Fort Henry

February 11-16, 1862 - American Civil War: Confederate forces are defeated at the Battle of Fort Donelson

February 21, 1862 - American Civil War: Union forces are beaten at the Battle of Valverde

March 7-8, 1862 - American Civil War: Union troops win the Battle of Pea Ridge

March 9, 1862 - American Civil War: USS Monitor fights CSS Virginia in the first battle between ironclads

March 23, 1862 - American Civil War: Confederate troops are defeated at the First Battle of Kernstown

March 26-28, 1862 - American Civil War: Union forces successfully defend New Mexico at the Battle of Glorieta Pass

April 6-7, 1862 - American Civil War: Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant is surprised, but wins the Battle of Shiloh

April 5-May 4, 1862 - American Civil War: Union troops conduct the Siege of Yorktown

April 10-11, 1862 - American Civil War: Union forces capture Fort Pulaski

April 12, 1862 - American Civil War: The Great Locomotive Chase takes place in northern Georgia

April 25, 1862 - American Civil War: Flag Officer David G. Farragut captures New Orleans for the Union

May 5, 1862 - American Civil War: The Battle of Williamsburg is fought during the Peninsula Campaign

May 8, 1862 - American Civil War: Confederate and Union troops clash at the Battle of McDowell

May 25, 1862 - American Civil War: Confederate troops win the First Battle of Winchester

June 8, 1862 - American Civil War: Confederate forces win the Battle of Cross Keys in the Shenandoah Valley

June 9, 1862 - American Civil War: Union forces lose the Battle of Port Republic

June 25, 1862-  American Civil War: Forces meet at the Battle of Oak Grove

June 26, 1862 - American Civil War: Union troops win the Battle of Beaver Dam Creek (Mechanicsville)

June 27, 1862 - American Civil War: Confederate forces overwhelm the Union V Corps at the Battle of Gaines' Mill

June 29, 1862 - American Civil War: Union troops fight the inconclusive Battle of Savage's Station

June 30, 1862 - American Civil War: Union forces hold at the Battle of Glendale (Frayser's Farm)

July 1, 1862 - American Civil War: The Seven Days Battles ends with a Union victory at the Battle of Malvern Hill

August 9, 1862 - American Civil War: Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks is defeated at the Battle of Cedar Mountain

August 28-30, 1862 - American Civil War: Gen. Robert E. Lee wins a stunning victory at the Second Battle of Manassas

September 1, 1862 - American Civil War: Union and Confederate forces fight the Battle of Chantilly

September 12-15, 1862 - American Civil War: Confederate troops win the Battle of Harpers Ferry

September 15, 1862 - American Civil War: Union forces triumph at the Battle of South Mountain

September 17, 1862 - American Civil War: Union forces win a strategic victory at the Battle of Antietam

September 19, 1862 - American Civil War: Confederate forces are beaten at the Battle of Iuka

October 3-4, 1862 - American Civil War: Union forces hold at the Second Battle of Corinth

October 8, 1862 - American Civil War: Union and Confederate forces clash in Kentucky at the Battle of Perryville

December 7, 1862 - American Civil War: Armies fight the Battle of Prairie Grove in Arkansas

December 13, 1862 - American Civil War: The Confederates win the Battle of Fredericksburg

December 26-29, 1862 - American Civil War: Union forces are held at the Battle of Chickasaw Bayou

December 31, 1862-January 2, 1863 - American Civil War: Union and Confederate forces clash at the Battle of Stones River

May 1-6, 1863 - American Civil War: Confederate forces win a stunning victory at the Battle of Chancellorsville

May 12, 1863 - American Civil War: Confederate forces are beaten at the Battle of Raymond during the Vicksburg Campaign

May 16, 1863 - American Civil War: Union forces win a key victory at the Battle of Champion Hill

May 17, 1863 - American Civil War: Confederate forces are beaten at the Battle of Big Black River Bridge

May 18-July 4, 1863 - American Civil War: Union troops conduct the Siege of Vicksburg

May 21-July 9, 1863 - American Civil War: Union troops under Maj. Gen. Nathaniel Banks conduct the Siege of Port Hudson

June 9, 1863 - American Civil War: Cavalry forces fight the Battle of Brandy Station

July 1-3, 1863 - American Civil War: Union forces under Maj. Gen. George G. Meade win the Battle of Gettysburg and turn the tide in the East