19th Century Timeline

19th Century technology, science, and inventions

Horn gramophone, late 19th century
Horn gramophone, late 19th century. Dave King / Getty Images
Timeline <1000 - 1300 <1400 <1500 <1600 <1700 <1800 <1900 <2000

By definition, the 19th century lasted from 1801 through 1900 according to the Gregorian calendar. It is also referred to as the "1800s." The invention of useable electricity, steel, and petroleum products during the 19th century lead to a second industrial revolution (1865–1900), that featured the growth of railways and steam ships, faster and wider means of communication, and inventions with names we all know today.

The 19th century was the age of machine tools - tools that made tools - machines that made parts for other machines, including interchangeable parts. The assembly line was invented during the 19th century, speeding up the factory production of consumer goods.

The 19th century gave birth to the professional scientist, the word scientist was first used in 1833 by William Whewell. Inventors began to design practical internal combustion engines. The lightbulb, telephone, typewriter, sewing machine, all came of age during the 19th century.

 

  • 1800 to 1833
  • 1834 to 1866
  • 1867 to 1899

 

1800

1804

  • Freidrich Winzer (Winsor) was the first person to patent gas lighting.
  • Richard Trevithick, an English mining engineer, developed the first steam-powered locomotive. Unfortunately, the machine was too heavy and broke the very rails it was traveling on.

    1809

    • Humphry Davy invents the first electric light - the first arc lamp.

    1810

    1814

    • George Stephenson designs the first steam locomotive.
    • The first plastic surgery is performed in England.
    • German, Joseph von Fraunhofer invents the spectrocope for the chemical analysis of glowing objects.
    • Joseph Nicéphore Niépce was the first person to take a photograph. He took the picture by setting up a machine called the camera obscura in the window of his home in France. It took eight hours for the camera to take the picture.

    1815

    • Humphry Davy invents the miner's lamp.

    1819

    1823

    1824

    1825

    1827

    • John Walker invents modern matches.
    • Charles Wheatstone was the first person to coin the phrase microphone.

    1829

    • American, W.A. Burt invents a typewriter.
    • Frenchmen, Louis Braille invents braille printing for the blind. William Austin Burt patents a typographer, a predecessor to the typewriter.

    1830

    1831

    1832

    • The first patented stereoscope was invented by Charles Wheatstone in 1832 and patented in 1838.
    • 1800 to 1833
    • 1834 to 1866
    • 1867 to 1899

    1834

    • Henry Blair patents a corn planter, he is the second black person to receive a U.S. patent.
    • Jacob Perkins invents an early refrigerator type device - an ether ice machine.

    1835

    • Englishmen, Henry Talbot invents calotype photography.
    • Solymon Merrick patents the wrench.
    • Englishmen, Francis Pettit Smith invents the propeller.
    • Charles Babbage invents a mechanical calculator.

      1836

      • Francis Pettit Smith and John Ericcson co-invent the propellor.
      • Samuel Colt invented the first revolver.

      1837

      1838

      I839

      • American, Thaddeus Fairbanks invents platform scales.
      • American, Charles Goodyear invents rubber vulcanization.
      • Frenchmen, Louis Daguerre and J.N. Niepce co-invent Daguerreotype photography.
      • Kirkpatrick Macmillan invents a bicycle.
      • Welshmen, Sir William Robert Grove conceives of the first hydrogen fuel cell.

      1840

      • Englishmen, John Herschel invents the blueprint.

      1841

      • Samuel Slocum patents the stapler.

      1842

      1843

      1844

      • Englishmen, John Mercer invents mercerized cotton.

      1845

      • American, Elias Howe invents a sewing machine.
      • Robert William Thomson patents the first vulcanised rubber pneumatic tire.

        1846

        • Dr. William Morton, a Massachusetts dentist, is the first to use anesthesia for tooth extraction.

        1847

        1848

        1849

        1850

        • Joel Houghton was granted the first patent for a dishwasher.

          1851

          1852

          • Jean Bernard Léon Foucault invents gyroscope.
          • Henri Giffard builds an airship powered by the first aircraft engine - an unsuccessful design.

          1853

          1854

          1855

          • Isaac Singer patents the sewing machine motor.
          • Georges Audemars invents rayon.

          1856

          1857

          1858

          1861

          • Elisha Otis patents elevator safety brakes, creating a safer elevator.
          • Pierre Michaux invents a bicycle.
          • Linus Yale invents the Yale lock or cylinder lock.

          1862

          1866

          • Alfred Nobel invents dynamite.
          • J. Osterhoudt patents the tin can with a key opener.
          • Englishmen Robert Whitehead invents a torpedo.
          • 1800 to 1833
          • 1834 to 1866
          • 1867 to 1899

          1867

          • Christopher Scholes invents the first practical and modern typewriter.

          1868

          • George Westinghouse invents air brakes.
          • Robert Mushet invents tungsten steel.
          • J P Knight invents traffic lights.

          1872

          • J.S. Risdon patents the metal windmill.
          • A.M. Ward issues the first mail-order catalog.

          1873

          1874

          • American, C. Goodyear, Jr. invents the shoe welt stitcher.

            1876

            1877

            • Thomas Edison invents the ylinder phonograph or tin foil phonograph.
            • Eadweard Muybridge invents the first moving pictures.

            1878

            • Sir Joseph Wilson Swan was the first person to invent a practical and longer-lasting electic lightbulb.

            1880

            • The British Perforated Paper Company invents a form of toilet paper.
            • Englishmen, John Milne invents the modern seismograph.

            1881

            • Alexander Graham Bell invents the first crude metal detector.
            • David Houston patents the roll film for cameras.
            • Edward Leveaux patents the automatic player piano.

            1884

            • Charles Parson patents the steam turbine.

            1885

            • Harim Maxim invents the machine gun.
            • Karl Benz invents the first practical automobile to be powered by an internal-combustion engine.
            • Gottlieb Daimler invents the first gas-engined motorcycle.

            1886

            1887

            1888

            1889

            • Joshua Pusey invents the matchbook.
            • Sir James Dewar and Sir Frederick Abel co-invent Cordite - a type of smokeless gunpowder.

            1891

            1892

            • Rudolf Diesel invents the diesel-fueled internal combustion engine.
            • Sir James Dewar invents the Dewar flask or vacuum flask.

            1893

            1895

            • Lumiere Brothers invent a portable motion-picture camera, film processing unit and projector called the Cinematographe. Lumiere Brothers using their Cinematographe are the first to present a projected motion picture to an audience of more that one person.

            1896

            • American, H. O'Sullivan invents the rubber heel.

            1898

            • Edwin Prescott patents the roller coaster.
            • Rudolf Diesel receives patent #608,845 for an "internal combustion engine" the Diesel engine.

              1899

              • I.R. Johnson patents the bicycle frame.
              • John Thurman patents the motor-driven vacuum cleaner.

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