Science, Tech, Math › Science How to Define Acceleration Share Flipboard Email Print Jim Smithson/Getty Images Science Physics Physics Laws, Concepts, and Principles Quantum Physics Important Physicists Thermodynamics Cosmology & Astrophysics Chemistry Biology Geology Astronomy Weather & Climate By Andrew Zimmerman Jones Andrew Zimmerman Jones Math and Physics Expert M.S., Mathematics Education, Indiana University B.A., Physics, Wabash College Andrew Zimmerman Jones is a science writer, educator, and researcher. He is the co-author of "String Theory for Dummies." Learn about our Editorial Process Updated on May 04, 2019 Acceleration is the rate of change of velocity as a function of time. It is a vector, meaning that it has both magnitude and direction. It is measured in meters per second squared or meters per second (the object's speed or velocity) per second. In calculus terms, acceleration is the second derivative of position concerning time or, alternately, the first derivative of the velocity concerning time. Acceleration—Change in Speed The everyday experience of acceleration is in a vehicle. You step on the accelerator, and the car speeds up as increasing force is applied to the drive train by the engine. But deceleration is also acceleration - the velocity is changing. If you take your foot off the accelerator, the force decreases and velocity is reduced over time. Acceleration, as heard in ads, follows the rule of the change of speed (miles per hour) over time, such as from zero to 60 miles per hour in seven seconds. Units of Acceleration The SI units for acceleration are m / s2(meters per second squared or meters per second per second). The gal or galileo (Gal) is a unit of acceleration used in gravimetry but is not an SI unit. It is defined as 1 centimeter per second squared. 1 cm/s2 English units for acceleration are feet per second per second, ft/s2 The standard acceleration due to gravity, or standard gravity g0 is the gravitational acceleration of an object in a vacuum near the surface of the earth. It combines the effects of gravity and centrifugal acceleration from the rotation of the Earth. Converting Acceleration Units Value m/s2 1 Gal, or cm/s2 0.01 1 ft/s2 0.304800 1 g0 9.80665 Newton's Second Law—Calculating Acceleration The classical mechanic's equation for acceleration comes from Newton's Second Law: The sum of the forces (F) on an object of constant mass (m) is equal to mass m multiplied by the object's acceleration (a). F = am Therefore, this can be rearranged to define acceleration as: a = F/m The result of this equation is that if no forces are acting on an object (F = 0), it will not accelerate. Its speed will remain constant. If mass is added to the object, the acceleration will be lower. If mass is removed from the object, its acceleration will be higher. Newton's Second Law is one of the three laws of motion Isaac Newton published in 1687 in Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). Acceleration and Relativity While Newton's laws of motion apply at speeds we encounter in daily life, once objects are traveling near the speed of light, the rules change. That's when Einstein's special theory of relativity is more accurate. The special theory of relativity says it takes more force to result in acceleration as an object approaches the speed of light. Eventually, acceleration becomes vanishingly small and the object never quite achieves the speed of light. Under the theory of general relativity, the principle of equivalence says that gravity and acceleration have identical effects. You don't know whether or not you are accelerating unless you can observe without any forces on you, including gravity. Featured Video Cite this Article Format mla apa chicago Your Citation Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. "How to Define Acceleration." ThoughtCo, Aug. 27, 2020, thoughtco.com/acceleration-2698960. Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. (2020, August 27). How to Define Acceleration. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/acceleration-2698960 Jones, Andrew Zimmerman. "How to Define Acceleration." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/acceleration-2698960 (accessed December 8, 2021). copy citation Newton's Law of Gravity Newton Definition The Difference Between Terminal Velocity and Free Fall Einstein's Theory of Relativity International System of Measurement (SI) Biography of Isaac Newton, Mathematician and Scientist The History of Gravity Learn About the True Speed of Light and How It's Used What Is Velocity in Physics? Learn about the Doppler Effect Understanding Momentum in Physics Understanding What Fluid Dynamics is Introduction to Newton's Laws of Motion The Different Fields of Physics Definition of Force in Physics What are Rotation and Revolution?