Biography of Michiel de Ruyter, Great Admiral of the Netherlands

He was active during the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the mid-1600s

Lieutenant-Admiral Michiel de Ruyter by Ferdinand Bol, 1667

Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain

Michiel de Ruyter (March 24, 1607–April 29, 1676) was one of the Netherlands' most skilled and successful admirals, who is famous for his role in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century. He is particularly noted for his raid on the Medway, where the Dutch fleet sailed up the Thames, a river that flows right through the heart of London, England, burning more than 10 British ships and capturing two others.

Fast Facts: Michiel de Ruyter

  • Known For: Successful Dutch admiral of the 17th century; led a raid up the Thames and into the heart of London
  • Also Known As: Michiel Adriaenszoon, Bestevaêr
  • Born: March 24, 1607 in Vlissingen, Netherlands
  • Parents: Adriaen Michielszoon, Aagje Jansdochter
  • Died: April 29, 1676 in the Bay of Syracuse, near Sicily
  • Films: "Admiral (Michiel de Ruyter)," 2015
  • Awards and Honors: De Ruyter has a statue in his birthplace Vlissingen looking out at the sea. Many towns in the Netherlands have named streets after him. Six ships of the Royal Netherlands Navy have been named HNLMS De Ruyter and seven are named after his flagship HNLMS De Zeven Provinciën.
  • Spouse(s): Maayke Velders (m. March 16, 1631–December 31, 1631), Neeltje Engels (m. summer 1636–1650), Anna van Gelder (January 9, 1652–April 29, 1676)
  • Children: Adriaen, Neeltje, Aelken, Engel, Margaretha, Anna
  • Notable Quote: "You might see the heads of some, the arms, legs or thighs of others shot off, and others....cut off by the middle with a chain-shot breathing out their last anguish and pain; some burning in ships fired, and others exposed to the mercy of the liquid Element, some of them sinking, whilst others who have learnt the art of swimming, lift up their heads above water and implore pity from their very enemies, entreating them to save their lives."

Early Life

Ruyter was the son of Vlissingen beer porter Adriaen Michielszoon and his wife Aagje Jansdochter. Growing up in a port town, de Ruyter appears to have first gone to sea at age 11. Four years later, he entered the Dutch army and fought against the Spaniards during the relief of Bergen-op-Zoom. Returning to business, he worked in the Dublin office of the Vlissingen-based Lampsins Brothers from 1623 to 1631. He married Maayke Velders when he returned home, but the union proved brief as she died in childbirth in late 1631.

In the wake of his wife's death, de Ruyter became first mate of a whaling fleet that operated around Jan Mayen Island. After three seasons on the whale fishery, he married Neeltje Engels, the daughter of a wealthy burgher. Their union produced three children who survived to adulthood. Recognized as a gifted sailor, de Ruyter was given command of a ship in 1637 and was charged with hunting raiders operating from Dunkirk. Successfully fulfilling this duty, he was commissioned by the Zeeland Admiralty and given command of the warship Haze, with orders to aid in supporting the Portuguese in their rebellion against Spain.

Early Naval Career

Sailing as third-in-command of the Dutch fleet, de Ruyter aided in defeating the Spanish off Cape St. Vincent on November 4, 1641. With the fighting concluded, de Ruyter purchased his own ship, Salamander, and engaged in trade with Morocco and the West Indies. Becoming a wealthy merchant, de Ruyter was stunned when his wife suddenly died in 1650. Two years later, he married Anna van Gelder and retired from the merchant service. With the outbreak of the First Anglo-Dutch War, de Ruyter was asked to take command of a Zealandic squadron of "director's ships" (privately financed warships).

Accepting, he successfully defended an outbound Dutch convoy at the Battle of Plymouth on August 26, 1652. Serving under Lieutenant-Admiral Maarten Tromp, de Ruyter acted as a squadron commander during the defeats at Kentish Knock (October 8, 1652) and the Gabbard (June 12–13, 1653). Following Tromp's death at the Battle of Scheveningen in August 1653, Johan de Witt offered de Ruyter command of the Dutch fleet. Fearful that accepting would anger officers senior to him, de Ruyter declined. Instead, he elected to become the vice-admiral of the Amsterdam Admiralty shortly before the end of the war in May 1654.

Later Naval Career

Flying his flag from Tijdverdrijf, de Ruyter spent 1655–1656 cruising the Mediterranean and protecting Dutch commerce from the Barbary pirates. Shortly after arriving back in Amsterdam, he re-embarked with orders to support the Danes against Swedish aggression. Operating under Lieutenant-Admiral Jacob van Wassenaer Obdam, de Ruyter aided in relieving Gdañsk in July 1656. Over the next seven years, he saw action off the coast of Portugal and spent time on convoy duty in the Mediterranean. In 1664 while off the coast of West Africa, he battled with the English who had occupied Dutch slaving stations.

Crossing the Atlantic, de Ruyter was informed that the Second Anglo-Dutch War had begun. Sailing to Barbados, he attacked the English forts and destroyed shipping in the harbor. Turning north, he raided Newfoundland before re-crossing the Atlantic and arriving back in the Netherlands. After van Wassenaer, the leader of the combined Dutch fleet, was killed at the recent Battle of Lowestoft, de Ruyter's named was again put forward by Johan de Witt. Accepting on August 11, 1665, de Ruyter led the Dutch to victory at the Four Days Battle the following June.

Raid on the Medway

While initially successful, de Ruyter's luck failed him in August 1666 when he was beaten and narrowly avoided disaster at the St. James Day Battle. The outcome of the battle furthered de Ruyter's growing rift with one of his subordinates, Lieutenant-Admiral Cornelis Tromp, who coveted his post as commander of the fleet. Falling gravely ill in early 1667, de Ruyter recovered in time to oversee the Dutch fleet's daring raid on the Medway. Conceived by de Witt, the Dutch succeeded in sailing up the Thames and burning three capital ships and 10 others.

Before retreating, they captured the English flagship Royal Charles and a second ship, Unity, and towed them back to the Netherlands. The embarrassment of the incident ultimately forced the English to sue for peace. With the war's conclusion, de Ruyter's health continued to be an issue and in 1667, de Witt forbade him from putting to sea. This ban continued until 1671. The next year, de Ruyter took the fleet to sea to defend the Netherlands from invasion during the Third Anglo-Dutch War. Encountering the English off Solebay, de Ruyter defeated them in June 1672.

Later Years and Death

The following year, he won a string crucial victories at Schoonveld (June 7 and June 14) and Texel, which eliminated the threat of English invasion. Promoted to lieutenant-admiral-general, de Ruyter sailed for the Caribbean in mid-1674 after the English had been driven from the war. Attacking French possessions, he was forced to return home when disease broke out aboard his ships. Two years later, de Ruyter was given command of a combined Dutch-Spanish fleet and was sent to aid in putting down the Messina Revolt. Engaging a French fleet under Abraham Duquesne at Stromboli, de Ruyter was able to achieve another victory.

Four months later, de Ruyter clashed with Duquesne at the Battle of Agosta. During the fighting, he was mortally wounded in the left leg by a cannonball. Clinging to life for a week, he died on April 29, 1676. On March 18, 1677, de Ruyter was given a full state funeral and buried in Amsterdam's Nieuwe Kerk.


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Hickman, Kennedy. "Biography of Michiel de Ruyter, Great Admiral of the Netherlands." ThoughtCo, Aug. 26, 2020, Hickman, Kennedy. (2020, August 26). Biography of Michiel de Ruyter, Great Admiral of the Netherlands. Retrieved from Hickman, Kennedy. "Biography of Michiel de Ruyter, Great Admiral of the Netherlands." ThoughtCo. (accessed May 30, 2023).