Advanced Word Formation - B, C

ABCs
ABC Blocks. Ugurhan Betin / Getty Images

Word formation is one of the keys to success for advanced level ESL learners. Advanced level English exams such as the TOEFL, First Certificate CAE and Proficiency use word formation as one of the key testing elements. These word formation charts provide the concept noun, personal noun, adjective and verb forms of key vocabulary listed in alphabetical order.

Word Forms

Concept nounPersonal nounAdjective Verb
baking - Baking is a fine thing to do.baker - The baker made some bread.baked - The baked potatoes were very good. bake - Tom baked a cake last night. 
banking - Banking is responsible for many problems these days. banker - The bankers were corrupt. bankrupt - The man went bankrupt. bank - I need to go to the bank today. 
belief - He has a firm belief in his innocence. believer - She's a true believer. believable - I'm afraid your story isn't believable. believe - Do you believe me?
benevolence - His benevolence helped many people. benefactor - Have you ever had a benefactor? beneficial - Studying is beneficial for many things. benefit - You'll benefit from the settlement.  
bidding - She did his bidding at their home. bidder - The highest bidder took home the painting. bidden - The bidden document was stolen. bid - I made a bid on the painting. 
blackmail - Blackmail is a crime. blackmailer - The blackmailer asked for $1 million. blackmailed - The blackmailed man went to the police. blackmail - I'm afraid it's blackmail. 
blasphemy - Some people say blasphemy will land you in hell. blasphemer - The blasphemer was banned from the church. blasphemous - His words were considered blasphemous. blaspheme - Don't accuse me of blaspheme!
bombardment - The bombardment destroyed the city. bomber - The bomber flew three missions. bombarded - He grew up in a bombarded city. bomb - They dropped the bomb in the meeting. 
brainwashing - Many people feel they are subject to brainwashing. brainwasher - The brainwasher took his time with the children. brainwashed - That's crazy! You've been brainwashed. brainwash - The brainwash was completely effective. 
broadcasting - Broadcasting has become easy these days. broadcaster - The broadcaster announced the news. broadcast - The broadcast show began at seven. broadcast - The broadcast was scheduled for 8 pm. 
business - It's business as usual. businessman / business woman - The business woman won the contract. businesslike - Tom is very businesslike. to do business - Let's do some business. 
calculation - Calculation can get you in trouble. calculator - Use the calculator to do the math. calculated - They were calculated steps. calculate - We calculate we'll need 100 people. 
censorship - Censorship is a form of propaganda.  censor - The censor check the TV show. censored - That is a heavily censored TV show. censure - We need to censure that show. It's outrageous!
 challenger - The challenger stepped up to the box. challenged - He was a challenged math student. challenge - He challenges you to a duel. 
 charmer - He's a real charmer. Be careful! charmed / charming - We had a charming evening. charm - I'll charm him and he'll accept our terms. 
cheerfulness - Cheerfulness is an admirable characteristic. cheerleader - The cheerleader go the crowd fired up. cheerful - I love his cheerful disposition. cheer - Can you cheer me up? I hate my job!
childbearing - Childbearing is hard!childcare - The childcare in this country is awful. childlike - She's very childlike. child - Can you child the project? 
choreography - Choreography is a beautiful artform. choreographer - The choreographer created a beautiful scene. choreographed - The choreographed scene was magical. choreograph - Tim Peters is going to choreograph the ballet.