African-American History Timeline: 1920–1929

Marcus Garvey, 1924

A&E Television Networks/Wikimedia Commons 

The 1920s, often called the Roaring Twenties, is synonymous with the Jazz Age and the Harlem Renaissance. African-American musicians, visual artists, and writers were able to achieve great fame and notoriety for their work during this period. 

Meanwhile, African-American communities were ravaged following riots, and students were establishing fraternities and sororities on college campuses. 

1920

January 16: Zeta Phi Beta, an African-American sorority, is founded at Howard University.

February 13: The Negro National Baseball League is founded by Andrew Rube Foster. Eight teams are part of the league.

August 18: The 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified. The Amendment grants women the right to vote. However, African-American women residing in Southern states are barred from voting through poll taxes, literacy tests, and grandfather clauses.

August: Marcus Garvey holds the first international convention of the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA) in New York City.

1921

March: "Shuffle Along," written by Noble Sissle and Eubie Blake, debuts on Broadway. The musical is considered the first major theatrical production of the Harlem Renaissance.

March: Harry Pace establishes Black Swan Phonograph Corporation. The company is the first African-American record company. Prominent artists include Mamie Smith, Bessie Smith, and Ethel Waters.

May 31: The Tulsa Race Riot begins. When the riot ends the following day, an estimated 60 African-Americans and 21 white residents have been killed. In addition to these casualties, the African-American business district known as Deep Greenwood is destroyed.

Other Events in 1921

  • Sadie Tanner Mossell Alexander becomes the first African-American woman to receive a Ph.D., in economics. Soon after, Eva B. Dykes graduates from Radcliff, and Georgiana R. Simpson graduates from the University of Chicago.
  • An exhibition of African-American artists is held at the 135th Street Branch of the New York Public Library. Artists such as Henry Ossawa Tanner are featured in the exhibit.
  • The Binga State Bank is established in Chicago by Jesse Binga. The banking institution is considered the largest African-American bank in the United States before the stock market crash of 1929.

1922

November 12: Sigma Gamma Rho, an African-American sorority is founded in Indianapolis.

Other Events in 1922

  • William Leo Hansberry, a professor at Howard University, teaches the first course on African history and civilization at a university in the United States.
  • The Harmon Foundation is developed to assist African-American artists.

1923

January 1: The Rosewood Massacre occurs.

February: Bessie Smith records her first sides for Columbia. Her song “Down Hearted Blues” will become the first million-selling record by an African-American recording artist.

November 20: Garrett T. Morgan patents the caution light, also known as the three-position traffic signal.

Other Events in 1923

  • Marcus Garvey is arrested for mail fraud and sent to a federal prison in Atlanta.
  • The Cotton Club opens in Harlem.
  • The National Urban League begins publishing the magazine Opportunity: Journal of Negro Life. Edited by Charles S. Johnson, the publication becomes one of the leading boosters of the Harlem Renaissance.
  • Rojo Jack is the first African-American to participate in a professional car race.

1924

  • James Van Der Zee begins his career as a photographer.
  • The National Bar Association is founded by African-American attorneys in Des Moines, Iowa. It is incorporated in 1925.

1925

August 25: A. Philip Randolph establishes the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters and Maids.

October: The American Negro Labor Congress, a communist-based organization, is developed to recruit and help African-Americans fight racism and discrimination.

Other Events in 1925

  • Alain Locke publishes The New Negro, an anthology featuring African-American writers and visual artists of the Harlem Renaissance.
  • Clifton Reginald Wharton becomes the first African-American to become a U.S. ambassador by rising through the ranks of the U.S. Foreign Service.

1926

February: Negro History Week commemorating the birthdays of Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass, is celebrated for the first time. It was developed by historian Carter G. Woodson.

June 26: Dr. Mordecai Johnson is the first African-American president of Howard University.

Other Events in 1926

  • Arturo Alfonso Schomburg sells his collection of books and artifacts to the Carnegie Corporation. The collection becomes part of the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture in New York City.

1927

January 7: The Harlem Globetrotters basketball team plays its first game. It was established the previous year in Chicago by Abe Saperstein.

Other Events in 1927

  • Marcus Garvey is deported from the United States.
  • Journalist Floyd Joseph Calvin becomes the first African-American radio host when he begins broadcasting from WGBS in Pittsburgh.

1928

August 5: Atlanta Daily World, an African-American daily newspaper, begins publication.

November 6: Oscar DePriest is the first African-American to represent a northern, urban district when he is elected to Congress representing the South Side of Chicago. He was the first African-American elected to Congress in the 20th century.

1929

June 20: The influential Fats Waller song "Ain’t Misbehavin'" is part of a musical, "Hot Chocolates," that debuts on Broadway. Louis Armstrong plays as a part of the pit and is featured on the song nightly.