A Brief History of the Age of Exploration

The Age of Exploration Brought About Discoveries and Advances

Christopher Columbus On Santa Maria
Christopher Columbus had many famed voyages during the Age of Discovery. GraphicaArtis / Contributor/ Getty Images

 

The era known as the Age of Exploration, sometimes called the Age of Discovery, officially began in the early 15th century and lasted through the 17th century. The period is characterized as a time when Europeans began exploring the world by sea in search of new trading routes, wealth and knowledge. The impact of the Age of Exploration would permanently alter the world and transform geography into the modern science it is today.

The Birth of the Age of Exploration

Many nations were looking for goods such as silver and gold, but one of the biggest reasons for exploration was the desire to find a new route for the spice and silk trades. When the Ottoman Empire took control of Constantinople in 1453, it blocked European access to the area, severely limiting trade. In addition, it also blocked access to North Africa and the Red Sea, two very important trade routes to the Far East.

The first of the journeys associated with the Age of Discovery were conducted by the Portuguese. Although the Portuguese, Spanish, Italians and other had been plying the Mediterranean for generations, most sailors kept well within sight of land or traveled known routes between ports. Prince Henry the Navigator changed that, encouraging explorers to sail beyond the mapped routes and discover new trade routes to West Africa.

Portuguese explorers discovered the Madeira Islands in 1419 and the Azores in 1427.

Over the coming decades, they would push farther south along the African coast, reaching the coast of present-day Senegal by the 1440s and the Cape of Good Hope by 1490. Less than a decade later, in 1498, Vasco da Gama would follow this route all the way to India.

The Discovery of the New World

While the Portuguese were opening new sea routes along Africa, the Spanish also dreamed of finding new trade routes to the Far East.

Christopher Columbus, an Italian working for the Spanish monarchy, made his first journey in 1492. But instead of reaching India, Columbus instead found the island of San Salvador in what is known today as the Bahamas. He also explored the island of Hispaniola, home of modern-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic.

Columbus would lead three more voyages to the Caribbean, exploring parts of Cuba and the Central American coast. The Portuguese also reached the New World when explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral explored Brazil, setting off a conflict between Spain and Portugal in terms of the newly claimed lands. As a result, the Treaty of Tordesillas officially divided the world in half in 1494.

Columbus' journeys opened the door for the Spanish conquest of the Americas. During the next century, men like Hernan Cortes and Francisco Pizarro would decimate the Aztecs of Mexico, the Incas of Peru and other indigenous peoples of the Americas. By the end of the Age of Exploration, Spain would rule from the southwestern United States to the southernmost reaches of Chile and Argentina.

Opening the Americas

Great Britain and France also began seeking new trade routes and lands across the ocean. In 1497, John Cabot, an Italian explorer working for the English, reached what is believed to be the coast of Newfoundland.

A number of French and English explorers followed, including Giovanni da Verrazano, who discovered the entrance to the Hudson River in 1524, and Henry Hudson, who mapped the island of Manhattan first in 1609.

Over the next decades, the French, Dutch and British would all vie for dominance. England established the first permanent colony in North America at Jamestown, Va., in 1607. Samuel du Champlain founded Quebec City in 1608, and Holland established a trading outpost in present-day New York City in 1624.

Other important voyages of exploration that took place during the Age of Exploration were Ferdinand Magellan's attempted circumnavigation of the globe, the search for a trade route to Asia through the Northwest Passage, and Captain James Cook's voyages that allowed him to map various areas and travel as far as Alaska.

The End of the Age of Exploration

The Age of Exploration ended in the early 17th century after technological advancements and increased knowledge of the world allowed Europeans to travel easily across the globe by sea. The creation of permanent settlements and colonies created a network of communication and trade, therefore ending the need to search for trade routes.

It is important to note that the exploration did not cease entirely at this time. Eastern Australia was not officially claimed for Britain by Capt. James Cook until 1770, while much of the Arctic and Antarctic were not explored until the 19th century. Much of Africa also was also unexplored by Westerners until the early 20th centuries.

Contributions to Science

The Age of Exploration had a significant impact on geography. By traveling to different regions around the globe, explorers were able to learn more about areas like Africa and the Americas. In learning more about such places, explorers were able to bring knowledge of a larger world back to Europe.

Methods of navigation and mapping improved as a result of the travels of people like Prince Henry the Navigator. Prior to his expeditions, navigators used traditional portolan charts, which were based on coastlines and ports of call, keeping sailors close to shore.

The Spanish and Portuguese explorers who journeyed into the unknown created the world's first nautical maps, delineating not just the geography of the lands they found but also the seaward routes and ocean currents that led them there. As technology advanced and territory explored, maps and mapmaking became more and more sophisticated

These explorations also introduced a whole new world of flora and fauna to Europeans. Corn, now a staple of much of the world's diet, was unknown to Westerners until the time of the Spanish Conquest, as were sweet potatoes and peanuts. Likewise, Europeans had never seen turkeys, llamas or squirrels before setting foot in the Americas.

The Age of Exploration served as a stepping stone for geographic knowledge.

It allowed more people to see and study various areas around the world which increased geographic study, giving us the basis for much of the knowledge we have today.