Humanities › History & Culture Ancient Calendar The Ancient, Julian, & Gregorian Calendar, and Names of the Days of the Week Share Flipboard Email Print Fasti. Courtesy of Wikipedia. History & Culture Ancient History and Culture Figures & Events Ancient Languages Greece Egypt Asia Rome Mythology & Religion American History African American History African History Asian History European History Genealogy Inventions Latin American History Medieval & Renaissance History Military History The 20th Century Women's History View More By N.S. Gill Ancient History and Latin Expert M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota B.A., Latin, University of Minnesota N.S. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. our editorial process N.S. Gill Updated January 28, 2019 "Be quiet! The Roman calendar is the most perfect yet devised. It has twelve months.""Except when it has thirteen, as this year.""And all of these months have either thirty-one or twenty-nine days.""Except Februarius, which has twenty-eight. Only this year, according to you, it has only twenty-four."~ Steven Saylor Murder on the Appian Way, p. 191. Early farmers couldn't simply look at a wall calendar to see how many days until the last frost date. However, knowing there were approximately 12 moon cycles between one spring and the next, they could calculate how many lunar phases remained before planting season. Thus was born the concept of the 354 day lunar calendar, a concept eternally at odds with the approximately 365.25 day solar year. Blending time derived from the motions of the rotating earth, the earth revolving around the sun, and the moon's passage as the earth's satellite is hard enough, but the Mayans had 17 cosmological calendars, some of which go back ten million years and require the services of astronomers, astrologers, geologists, and mathematicians to figure out. Introduction to Mayan Calendar Terminology provides simplified information on some of the cycles and glyphs used in the Mayan calendars.~ From Mayan Calendar Terminology (1) The position the planets is vital to many calendars. At least once, on March 5, 1953 B.C.-- at the beginning of Chinese calendar time -- all the planets, the sun and the moon were in alignment.~ Source (2) Even our calendar system calls on this relationship with the planets. Names for the days of the week (although the Teutonic Woden, Tiw, Thor, and Frigg have replaced the Roman names for deities of related prowess) refer to various celestial bodies. Our 7-day week began under Augustus. [See table below.] According to "Calendars and Their History," calendars permit us to plan our farming, hunting, and migrating activities. They may also be used for prediction and to establish dates for religious and civic events. However accurate we might try to make them, calendars should be judged not by their scientific sophistication, but by how well they serve social needs.~ From Calendars and Their History (3) Calendar Reform disagrees. Its author thinks it's high time for reform. Our Gregorian calendar, adopted in 1751 by an act of Parliament, uses basically the same months Julius Caesar established 2 millennia ago, in 45 B.C.~ From Calendar Reform (4) Julian Calendar Reform Caesar faced an unreliable lunar calendar system based on a distrust of even numbers. The original first month, Martius, had 31 days, as did Maius, Quinctilis (later renamed Julius), October, and December. All the other months had 29 days, except the last month of the year, which was allowed to be unlucky with only 28 days. (The Aztecs, too, considered certain days of their xihutl calendar to be unlucky.) Finding, over time, that their calendar didn't correspond with the seasons of the solar year, the Romans, like the Hebrews and Sumerians, intercalated an extra month -- whenever the College of Pontiffs deemed it necessary (as in the passage from Murder on the Appian Way). Caesar turned to Egypt for guidance with the difficult Roman calendar. The Ancient Egyptians predicted the annual Nile flooding on the basis of the appearance of the star Sirius. The period between was 365.25 days -- less than an hour wrong in five years. So, abandoning the Roman lunar calendar, Caesar set alternating months of 31 and 30 days with February having only 29 days except every fourth year when February 23 was repeated.~ Source (5) Why the 23d? Because the Romans didn't yet count from the beginning of the month, but from before it. They counted how many days before the Nones, Ides, and Kalends of each month. February 23 was counted as six days before the kalends of March -- the old beginning of the year. When it was repeated, it was referred to as bi-sextile. What Was the Format of the Roman Fasti Calendar? Gregorian Calendar Reform Pope Gregory XIII's major changes were algorithms to calculate movable feasts and a new system of leap years that got rid of leap years in years that are divisible by 100 but not 400. Pope Gregory also deleted ten days from the 1592 calendar year in order to accommodate a shift in the equinox. When Did We Switch From the Roman Fasti Calendar to the Modern? A variety of calendars culminate around the year 2000. Calendar Convergence shows the common end of calendar cycles from the Hopi, the Ancient Greeks, the Early Egyptian Christians, the Mayan, and the Indian Vedic tradition. Planets Alignments in 2000 shows an alignment of the seven planets on May 5, 2000.~ From Calendar Convergence (6) and Planets Alignments (7) U. Glessmer. "The Otot-Texts (4Q319) and the Problem of Intercalations in the Context of the 364-Day Calendar" in:Qumranstudien: Vortraege und Beitraege der Teilnehmer des Qumranseminars auf dem internationalen Treffen der Society of Biblical Lit., Muenster, 25-26. Juli 1993 [Hans-Peter Mueller zum 60. Geburtstag]. Schriften des Institutum Judaicum Delitzschianum; Bd. 4. Ed. H.J. Fabry et al. Goettingen 1996, 125-164.~ From ANE discussion (8) References ([URL = < www.resonate.com/places/writings/mayan/calendar.htm >])([URL = < iNsci14.ucsd.edu/~fillmore/blurbs/calendars1.html >])([URL = < www.spiritweb.org/Spirit/mayan-calendar.html >])([URL = < www.webcom.com/tsh/ngs/ca/day1.html >])([URL = < astro.nmsu.edu/~lhuber/leaphist.html >])([URL = < ECUVAX.CIS.ECU.EDU/~PYMCCART/CALENDAR-REFORM.HTML >])([URL = < www.pcug.org.au/~dfry/calendar.html >])([URL = < physics.nist.gov/GenInt/Time/ancient.html >])([URL = < www.mm2000.nu/sphinxd.html >])([URL = < www.griffithobs.org/SkyAlignments.html >])([URL = < www-oi.uchicago.edu/OI/ANE/OI_ANE.html >]) Table of the Days of the Week dies Solis Sun day Sunday domenica (Italian) dies Lunae Moon day Monday lunedì dies Martis Mars's day Tiw's day Tuesday martedì dies Mercurii Mercury's day Woden's day Wednesday mercoledì dies Jovis Jupiter's day Thor's Day Thursday giovedì dies Veneris Venus's day Frigg's day Friday venerdì dies Saturni Saturn's day Saturday sabato Related Resources • Julius Caesar• Calendars• Maya Calendar Round• Intercalation• Gregorian Calendar• Julian Calendar Soviets Change the Calendar Important Accomplishments of the Roman Emperor The History of the Gregorian Calendar Ancient Egypt: Birthplace of the Modern Calendar Months in Russian: Pronunciation and Examples Get to Know How Roman Calendars Were Devised Where Did the BC/AD Designations Come From - and How Did We Get There? The Month of February in the Roman Calendar How Does Ancient Mayan Astronomy Portray the Sun, Moon and Planets? Biography of Numa Pompilius, Roman King How to Read and Convert Dates found in Old Documents Who Invented Leap Year? Why Does Our Modern Calendar Use Christian Ecclesiastical Notions? Understanding The Abbreviation A.D. Used in Dates The Origins of the Roman Festival Lupercalia Should We Use C.E., Not A.D., in Deference to Non-Christians?