Humanities › History & Culture Ancient Greek Pottery Share Flipboard Email Print History & Culture Ancient History and Culture Greece Figures & Events Ancient Languages Egypt Asia Rome Mythology & Religion American History African American History African History Asian History European History Genealogy Inventions Latin American History Medieval & Renaissance History Military History The 20th Century Women's History View More By N.S. Gill Ancient History and Latin Expert M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota B.A., Latin, University of Minnesota N.S. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. our editorial process N.S. Gill Updated November 14, 2019 These photos of ancient Greek pottery show the early geometric period designs using the technological advance of a quickly turning potter's wheel, as well as later black figure and red figure. Many of the scenes depicted come from Greek mythology. 01 of 19 Ivy Painter Amphora A.M. Kuchling at Flickr.com Not all Greek pottery appears red. Mark Cartwright's article on Greek pottery, in the Ancient History Encyclopedia, mentions that Corinthian clay was pale, buff colored, but the clay or ceramos (whence, ceramics) used in Athens was iron-rich and therefore orange-red. Firing was at a relatively low temperature compared with Chinese porcelain, but was done repeatedly. 02 of 19 Oinochoe: Black Figure Public Domain. Courtesy of Bibi Saint-Pol at Wikipedia. An oinochoe is a wine-pouring jug. The Greek for wine is oinos. Oinochoe were produced during both the Black-Figure and Red-Figure periods. (More below.) Aeneas Carrying Anchises: At the end of the Trojan War, the Trojan prince Aeneas left the burning city carrying his father Anchises on his shoulders. Eventually Aeneas founded the city that was to become Rome. 03 of 19 Oinochoe CC Photo Flickr User *clairity* The holes may be for pipes to place the oinochoe in water to cool the wine. The scene may show the fight between Pylos and Epians (Iliad XI). The human figures are highly stylized in the Geometric period (1100-700 B.C.) and horizontal bands and decorative abstract designs cover most of the surface including the handle. The Greek word for wine is "oinos" and an oinochoe was a wine pouring jar. The shape of the mouth of the oinochoe is described as trefoil. 04 of 19 Olpe, by the Amasis Painter: Black Figure Marie-Lan Nguyen/Wikimedia Commons Herakles or Hercules was the Greek demi-god son of Zeus and the mortal woman Alcmene. His step-mother Hera took out her jealousy on Hercules, but it was not her actions that led to his death. Instead it was centaur-poison administered by a loving wife that burned him and made him seek release. After he died, Hercules and Hera reconciled. The olpe is a pitcher with a spot and handle for ease of wine pouring. 05 of 19 Calyx-Krater: Red Figure Marie-Lan Nguyen/Wikimedia Commons A krater was a mixing bowl for mixing wine and water. Calyx refers to the floral shape of the bowl. The bowl has a foot and upward facing curved handles. 06 of 19 Hercules Black Figure Photo © by Adrienne Mayor Hercules leading a big-headed four-legged monster, late black-figure bowl. A headless Hercules is leading a four-legged beast in this piece from the National Archaeological Museum of Athens. Do you know or have a good guess as to what the creature is? 07 of 19 Calyx-Krater: Red Figure Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia Theseus was an ancient Greek hero and legendary king of Athens. He stars in many of his own myths, like the Minotaur's labyrinth, as well as in the adventures of other heroes; here, Jason's gathering of the Argonauts to go on a quest for the Golden Fleece. This krater, a vessel that could be used for wine, is in red figure, meaning the red of the vase is colored black where the figures are not. 08 of 19 Kylix: Red Figure © Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons The man-killing Crommyonian Sow ravaged the countryside around the Corinthian Isthmus. When Theseus was en route to Athens from Troizenos, he encountered the sow and it owner and killed them both. Pseudo-Apolldorus says both the owner and the sow were named Phaia and that the parents of the sow were thought by some to have been Echidna and Typhon, parents or Cerberus. Plutarch suggests that Phaia may have been a robber who was called a sow because of her manners. 09 of 19 Psykter, by the Pan Painter: Red Figure Public Domain. Bibi Saint-Pol at Wikipedia. Idas and Marpessa: A psykter was a cooling device for wine. It could be filled with snow. 10 of 19 Amphora, by the Berlin Painter: Red Figure Bibi Saint-Pol A kantharos is a drinking cup. Dionysus, as god of wine is shown with his kantharos wine cup. The container on which this red-figure appears is an amphora, a two-handled oval storage jar usually used for wine, but sometimes for oil. 11 of 19 Attic Tondo: Red Figure Marie-Lan Nguyen/Wikimedia Commons Described as a satyr pursuing a maenad, this is probably Silenus (or one of the sileni) pursuing one of the nymphs of Nysa. 12 of 19 Calix-Krater, by Euxitheos: Red Figure Public Domain. Courtesy of Bibi Saint-Pol at Wikipedia. Heracles and Antaeos: Until Hercules realized the giant Antaeus' strength came from its mother, Earth, Hercules had no way to kill him. A krater is a mixing bowl. Calyx (calix) describes the shape. The handles are on the bottom part, curving up. Euxitheos is thought to be the potter. The krater was signed by Euphronios as painter. 13 of 19 Chalice Krater, by Euphronios and Euxitheos: Red Figure Public Domain. Courtesy Bibi Saint-Pol at Wikipedia. Dionysus and Thiasos: Dionysus' thiasos is his group of dedicated worshipers. This red-figure chalice krater (mixing bowl) was created and signed by the potter Euxitheos, and painted by Euphronios. It is at the Louvre. 14 of 19 Euthymides Painter Red-Figure Amphora Public Domain Courtesy of Bibi St-Pol Theseus holds Helen as a young woman, lifting her off the ground. Another young woman, named Korone, tries to free Helen, while Peirithoos looks behind, according to Jenifer Neils, Phintias, and Euthymides. 15 of 19 Pyxis With Lid 750 B.C. CC Photo Flickr User *clairity* Geometric period pyxis. A pyxis might be used for cosmetics or jewelry. 16 of 19 Etruscan Stamnos Red Figure CC Flickr User Zaqarbal Red-figure Etruscan stamnos, from the mid-fourth century, showing a flute (aulos) player on a dolphin. A stamnos is a lidded storage jar for liquids. 17 of 19 Apulian Red-Figure Oenochoe PD Courtesy Marie-Lan Nguyen/Wikimedia Commons. An oinochoe (oenochoe) is a jug for pouring wine. The scene shown in red-figure is the rape of the daughter of the Athenian king Erechtheus by the wind god. The painting is attributed to the Salting Painter. The oenochoe is at the Louvre whose website describes the art as baroque, and the oenochoe as large, in the ornate style, and with the following dimensions: H. 44.5 cm; Diam. 27.4 cm. Source: Louvre: Greek, Etruscan, and Roman Antiquities: Classical Greek Art (5th and 4th Centuries BC) 18 of 19 Ancient Greek Potty Chair CC Flickr User BillBl There is an illustration on the wall behind the pottery potty training chair showing how the child would sit in this clay potty chair. 19 of 19 Hemikotylion Henry Beauchamp Walters, Samuel Birch (1905) This was a kitchen tool for measuring. Its name means a half-kotyle and it would have measured approximately a cup.