<p>Battlefield archaeology is an area of specialization among historical archaeologists. Archaeologists study battlefields of many different centuries, eras, and cultures, to document what historians cannot.</p>Traditionally, biblical archaeology is the name given to the study of the archaeological aspects of the history of the Jewish and Christian churches as provided in the Judeo-Christian bible.Classical archaeology is the study of the ancient Mediterranean, including ancient Greece and Rome and their immediate forebears Minoans and Mycenaeans. The study is often found in ancient history or art departments in graduate schools, and in general is a broad, culture-based study.Archaeologists who practice cognitive archaeology are interested in the material expression of human ways of thinking about things, such as gender, class, status, kinship.Commercial archaeology is not, as you might think, the buying and selling of artifacts, but rather archaeology which focuses on the material culture aspects of commerce and transportation.Cultural Resource Management, also called Heritage Management in some countries, is the way cultural resources including archaeology are managed at the governmental level. When it works best, CRM is a process, in which all the interested parties are allowed to have some input into the decision about what to do about endangered resources on public property.Economic archaeologists are concerned with how people control their economic resources, most particularly but not entirely, their food supply. Many economic archaeologists are Marxists, in that they are interested in who controls food supply, and how.Environmental archaeology is the subdiscipline of archaeology that focuses on the impacts of a given culture on the environment, as well as the impact of the environment on that culture.Ethnoarchaeology is the science of applying archaeological methods to living groups, in part to understand how the processes of how various cultures create archaeological sites, what they leave behind and what kind of patterns can be seen in modern rubbish.Experimental archaeology is a branch of archaeological study that replicates or attempts to replicate past processes to understand how the deposits came about. Experimental archaeoloy includes everything from the recreation of a stone tool through flintknapping to reconstruction of an entire village into a living history farm.Indigenous archaeology is archaeological research which is conducted by the descendants of the people who built the towns, camps, burial sites and middens that are under study. The most explicitly indigenous archaeological research is conducted in the United States and Canada by Native Americans and First Peoples.The study of ships and sea-faring is often called maritime or marine archaeology, but the study also includes investigations of coastline villages and towns, and other topics related to life on and around the seas and oceans.<p>By and large paleontology is the study of pre-human life forms, primarily dinosaurs. But some scientists who study the earliest human ancestors, Homo erectus and <a href="https://www.thoughtco.com/australopithecus-1093049" data-component="link" data-source="inlineLink" data-type="internalLink" data-ordinal="1">Australopithecus</a>, refer to themselves as paleontologists as well.</p>Post-processual archaeology is a reaction to processual archaeology, in that its practitioners believe that by emphasizing decay processes, you ignore the essential humanity of people. Post-processualists argue that you can&#39;t really understand the past by studying the way it falls apart.Prehistoric archaeology refers to studies of the remains of cultures that are primarily pre-urban and so, by definition, don&#39;t have contemporary economic and social records that can be consultedProcessual Archaeology is the study of process, that is to say, investigations of the way humans do things, and the way things decay.Urban archaeology is, essentially, the study of cities. Archaeologists call a human settlement a city if it has more than 5,000 people, and if it has a centralized political structure, craft specialists, complex economies, and social stratification.