Humanities › History & Culture Biography of Benito Juárez, Mexico's Liberal Reformer Share Flipboard Email Print Solange_Z / Getty Images History & Culture Latin American History Mexican History History Before Columbus Colonialism and Imperialism Caribbean History Central American History South American History American History African American History African History Ancient History and Culture Asian History European History Genealogy Inventions Medieval & Renaissance History Military History The 20th Century Women's History View More By Christopher Minster Professor of History and Literature Ph.D., Spanish, Ohio State University M.A., Spanish, University of Montana B.A., Spanish, Penn State University Christopher Minster, Ph.D., is a professor at the Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. our editorial process Christopher Minster Updated May 21, 2019 Benito Juárez (March 21, 1806–July 18, 1872) was a Mexican politician and statesman of the late 19th century and president of Mexico for five terms during the turbulent years of 1858–1872. Perhaps the most remarkable aspect of Juárez’s life in politics was his background: he was a full-blooded native of Zapotec descent and the only full-blooded native to ever serve as president of Mexico. He did not even speak Spanish until he was in his teens. He was an important and charismatic leader whose influence is still felt today. Fast Facts: Benito Juarez Known For: First Mexican president of full Mexican heritageAlso Known As: Benito Pablo Juárez GarcíaBorn: March 21, 1806 in San Pablo Guelatao, MexicoParents: Brígida García and Marcelino JuárezEducation: Oaxaca Institute of Arts and SciencesDied: July 18, 1872 in Mexico City, MexicoAwards and Honors: Namesake for many roads and schools as well as the Mexico City airportSpouse: Margarita Maza Children: 12 with Margarita Maza; 2 with Juana Rosa ChagoyaNotable Quote: "Among individuals, as among nations, respect for the rights of others is peace." Early Years Born on March 21, 1806, into grinding poverty in the rural hamlet of San Pablo Guelatao, Juárez was orphaned as a toddler and worked in the fields for most of his young life. He went to the city of Oaxaca at the age of 12 to live with his sister and worked as a servant for a time before being noticed by Antonio Salanueva, a Franciscan friar. Salanueva saw him as a potential priest and arranged for Juárez to enter the Santa Cruz seminary, where young Benito learned Spanish and law before graduating in 1827. He continued his education, entering the Institute of Science and Art and graduating in 1834 with a law degree. 1834–1854: His Political Career Begins Even before his graduation in 1834, Juárez was involved in local politics, serving as a city councilman in Oaxaca, where he earned a reputation as a staunch defender of native rights. He was made a judge in 1841 and became known as a fiercely anti-clerical liberal. By 1847 he had been elected governor of the state of Oaxaca. The United States and Mexico were at war from 1846 to 1848, although Oaxaca was nowhere near the fighting. During his tenure as governor, Juárez angered conservatives by passing laws allowing for the confiscation of church funds and lands. After the end of the war with the United States, former President Antonio López de Santa Anna had been driven from Mexico. In 1853, however, he returned and quickly set up a conservative government that drove many liberals into exile, including Juárez. Juárez spent time in Cuba and New Orleans, where he worked in a cigarette factory. While in New Orleans, he joined with other exiles to plot Santa Anna’s downfall. When the liberal general Juan Alvarez launched a coup, Juarez hurried back and was there in November 1854 when Alvarez’s forces captured the capital. Alvarez made himself president and named Juárez the minister of justice. 1854–1861: Conflict Brewing The liberals had the upper hand for the moment, but their ideological conflict with conservatives continued to smolder. As minister of justice, Juárez passed laws limiting church power, and in 1857 a new constitution was passed, which limited that power even further. By then, Juárez was in Mexico City, serving in his new role as chief justice of the Supreme Court. The new constitution turned out to be the spark that reignited the smoking fires of conflict between the liberals and conservatives, and in December 1857, conservative general Félix Zuloaga overthrew the Alvarez government. Juárez and other prominent liberals were arrested. Released from prison, Juárez went to Guanajuato, where he declared himself president and declared war. The two governments led by Juárez and Zuloaga were sharply divided, mostly over the role of religion in government. Juárez worked to further limit the powers of the church during the conflict. The U.S. government, forced to pick a side, formally recognized the liberal Juárez government in 1859. This turned the tide in favor of the liberals, and on Jan. 1, 1861, Juárez returned to Mexico City to assume the presidency of a united Mexico. European Intervention After the disastrous reform war, Mexico and its economy were in tatters. The nation still owed great sums of money to foreign nations, and in late 1861, Britain, Spain, and France united to send troops to Mexico to collect. Intense, last-minute negotiations convinced the British and Spanish to withdraw, but the French remained and began fighting their way to the capital, which they reached in 1863. They were welcomed by conservatives, who had been out of power since Juárez’s return. Juárez and his government were forced to flee. The French invited Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph, a 31-year-old Austrian nobleman, to come to Mexico and assume rule. In this, they had the support of many Mexican conservatives, who thought that a monarchy would best stabilize the country. Maximilian and his wife Carlota arrived in 1864, where they were crowned emperor and empress of Mexico. Juárez continued the war with the French and conservative forces, eventually forcing the emperor to flee the capital. Maximilian was captured and executed in 1867, effectively ending the French occupation. Death Juárez was reelected to the presidency in 1867 and 1871, but he did not live to finish his last term. He was felled by a heart attack while working at his desk on July 18, 1872. Legacy Today, Mexicans view Juárez much like some Americans see Abraham Lincoln: he was a firm leader when his nation needed one and took a side on a social issue that drove his nation to war. There is a city (Ciudad Juárez) named after him, as well as countless streets, schools, businesses, and more. He is held in particularly high regard by Mexico’s considerable indigenous population, which rightly views him as a trailblazer in native rights and justice. Sources Gonzalez Navarro, Moises. Benito Juarez. Mexico City: El Colegio de Mexico, 2006.Hammett, Brian. Juárez. Profiles in Power. Longman Press, 1994. Ridley, Jasper. Maximilian & Juarez. Phoenix Press, 2001.