Humanities › History & Culture Biography of Anastasio Somoza García, President of Nicaragua Share Flipboard Email Print Wikimedia Commons / Public Domain History & Culture Latin American History Central American History History Before Columbus Colonialism and Imperialism Caribbean History South American History Mexican History American History African American History African History Ancient History and Culture Asian History European History Genealogy Inventions Medieval & Renaissance History Military History The 20th Century Women's History View More By Christopher Minster Professor of History and Literature Ph.D., Spanish, Ohio State University M.A., Spanish, University of Montana B.A., Spanish, Penn State University Christopher Minster, Ph.D., is a professor at the Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. our editorial process Christopher Minster Updated July 29, 2019 Anastasio Somoza García (Feb. 1, 1896–Sept. 29, 1956) was a Nicaraguan general, president, and dictator from 1936 to 1956. His administration, while being one of the most corrupt in history and brutal to dissidents, was nevertheless supported by the United States because it was viewed as anti-communist. Fast Facts: Anastasio Somoza García Known For: Nicaraguan general, president, dictator, and founder of the Somoza Dynasty of NicaraguaBorn: Feb. 1, 1896 in San Marcos, NicaraguaParents: Anastasio Somoza Reyes and Julia GarcíaDied: Sept. 29, 1956 in Ancón, Panama Canal ZoneEducation: Peirce School of Business Administration, Philadelphia, PennsylvaniaSpouse(s): Salvadora Debayle SacasaChildren: Luis Somoza Debayle, Anastasio Somoza Debayle, Julio Somoza Debayle, Lilliam Somoza de Sevilla-Secasa Early Years and Family Anastasio Somoza García was born on Feb. 1, 1986, in San Marcos, Nicaragua, as a member of the Nicaraguan upper-middle class. His father Anastasio Somoza Reyes served as a Conservative Party senator from the department of Carazo for eight years. In 1914, he was elected vice-secretary of the Senate. He was also a signer of the Bryan-Chamorro Treaty in 1916. His mother Julia García was from a wealthy family of coffee planters. At the age of 19, after a family scandal, Somoza Garcia was sent to live with relatives in Philadelphia, where he attended Peirce School of Business Administration (now Peirce College). In Philadelphia, Somoza met and courted Salvadora Debayle Sacas, who had a politically well-connected family that objected to the marriage. Nevertheless, in 1919 they married in Philadelphia in a civil ceremony. They had a Catholic ceremony in Leon Cathedral when they returned to Nicaragua. They returned to Nicaragua and had a formal Catholic wedding in León Cathedral. While in León, Anastasio tried and failed at running several businesses: automobile sales, boxing promoter, meter reader for an electric company, and inspector of latrines at the Rockefeller Foundation's Sanitary Mission to Nicaragua. He even tried counterfeiting Nicaraguan currency and only avoided prison because of his family connections. U.S. Intervention in Nicaragua The United States became directly involved in Nicaraguan politics in 1909 when it supported a rebellion against President Jose Santos Zelaya, who had long been an opponent of U.S. policies in the area. In 1912, the United States sent Marines to Nicaragua to bolster the conservative government. The Marines remained until 1925 and as soon as they left, liberal factions went to war against the conservatives. The Marines returned after only nine months away and stayed until 1933. Beginning in 1927, renegade general Augusto César Sandino led a revolt against the government, which lasted until 1933. Somoza and the Americans Somoza had gotten involved in the presidential campaign of Juan Batista Sacasa, his wife’s uncle. Sacasa had been vice president under a previous administration, which had been overthrown in 1925, but in 1926 he returned to press his claim as the legitimate president. As the different factions fought, the U.S. was forced to step in and negotiate a settlement. Somoza, with his perfect English and insider’s position in the fracas, proved invaluable to the Americans. When Sacasa finally reached the presidency in 1933, the American ambassador persuaded him to name Somoza head of the National Guard. The National Guard and Sandino The National Guard had been established as a militia, trained and equipped by the U.S. Marines. It was meant to keep in check the armies raised by the liberals and conservatives in their endless skirmishing over control of the country. In 1933 when Somoza took over as head of the National Guard, only one rogue army remained: that of Augusto César Sandino, a liberal who had been fighting since 1927. Sandino’s biggest issue was the presence of American marines in Nicaragua, and when they left in 1933, he finally agreed to negotiate a truce. He agreed to lay down his arms, provided that his men be given land and amnesty. Somoza still saw Sandino as a threat, so in early 1934 he arranged to have Sandino captured. On February 21, 1934, Sandino was executed by the National Guard. Shortly thereafter, Somoza’s men raided the lands that had been given to Sandino’s men after the peace settlement, slaughtering the former guerillas. In 1961, leftist rebels in Nicaragua established the National Liberation Front: in 1963 they added “Sandinista” to the name, assuming his name in their struggle against the Somoza regime, by then being led by Luís Somoza Debayle and his brother Anastasio Somoza Debayle, Anastasio Somoza García’s two sons. Somoza Seizes Power President Sacasa’s administration was severely weakened in 1934–1935. The Great Depression had spread to Nicaragua and the people were unhappy. In addition, there were many allegations of corruption against him and his government. In 1936, Somoza, whose power had been growing, took advantage of Sacasa’s vulnerability and forced him to resign, replacing him with Carlos Alberto Brenes, a Liberal Party politician who mostly answered to Somoza. Somoza himself was elected in a crooked election, assuming the presidency on January 1, 1937. This began the period of Somoza rule in the country that would not end until 1979. Somoza quickly acted to set himself up as dictator. He took away any sort of real power of the opposition parties, leaving them only for show. He cracked down on the press. He moved to improve ties to the United States, and after the attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 he declared war on the Axis powers even before the United States did. Somoza also filled every important office in the nation with his family and cronies. Before long, he was in absolute control of Nicaragua. Height of Power Somoza remained in power until 1956. He stepped down briefly from the presidency from 1947–1950, bowing to pressure from the United States, but continued to rule through a series of puppet presidents, usually family. During this time, he had the complete support of the United States government. In the early 1950s, once again president, Somoza continued to build his empire, adding an airline, a shipping company, and several factories to his holdings. In 1954, he survived a coup attempt and also sent forces to Guatemala to help the CIA overthrow the government there. Death and Legacy On September 21, 1956, Anastasio Somoza García was shot in the chest by young poet and musician Rigoberto López Pérez at a party in the city of León. López was instantly brought down by Somoza bodyguards, but the president’s wounds would prove fatal on September 29. López would eventually be named a national hero by the Sandinista government. Upon his death, Somoza’s eldest son Luís Somoza Debayle took over, continuing the dynasty his father had established. The Somoza regime would continue through Luís Somoza Debayle (1956–1967) and his brother Anastasio Somoza Debayle (1967–1979) before being overthrown by the Sandinista rebels. Part of the reason that the Somozas were able to retain power for so long was the support of the U.S. government, which saw them as anti-communist. Franklin Roosevelt allegedly once said of him: “Somoza may be a son-of-a-bitch, but he’s our son-of-a-bitch.” There is little direct proof of this quote. The Somoza regime was extremely crooked. With his friends and family in every important office, Somoza's greed ran unchecked. The government seized profitable farms and industries and then sold them to family members at absurdly low rates. Somoza named himself director of the railway system and then used it to move his goods and crops at no charge to himself. Those industries that they could not personally exploit, such as mining and timber, they leased to foreign (mostly U.S.) companies for a healthy share of the profits. He and his family made untold millions of dollars. His two sons continued this level of corruption, making Somoza Nicaragua one of the most crooked countries in the history of Latin America. This sort of corruption had a lasting effect on the economy, stifling it and contributing to Nicaragua as a somewhat backward country for a long time. Sources Editors of the Encyclopedia Britannica. "Anastasio Somoza: President of Nicaragua." Encyclopedia Britannica, January 28, 2019.Editors of the Encyclopedia Britannica. "Somoza Family." Encyclopedia Britannica, August 24, 2012.La Botz, Dan. "The Somoza Dynastic Dictatorship (1936–75)." What Went Wrong? The Nicaraguan Revolution, A Marxist Analysis, p. 74–75. Brill, 2016. Merrill, Tim L. (ed.) "Nicaragua: A Country Study." Federal Research Division, U.S. Library of Congress, 1994.Otis, John. "Dictator's daughter wants " UPI, April 2, 1992.Walter, Knut. "The Regime of Anastasio Somoza, 1936–1956." Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1993.