Biology Prefixes and Suffixes: arthr- or arthro-

Arthritis X-ray
Arthritis is an inflammation of the joints. This colored X-ray shows the hands of an 81 year old female patient with rheumatoid arthritis. Credit: Science Photo Library/Getty Images

The prefix (arthr- or arthro-) means a joint or any junction between two different parts. Arthritis is a condition characterized by joint inflammation.

Words Beginning With "Arthr" notes that "arthr" comes from the Greek term "árthron," which, as noted, means "a joint." This section contains terms that begin with "arthr" but are followed by a vowel other than "o."

Arthralgia (Arthr - Algia)

Pain of the joints. It is a symptom rather than a disease and can result from injury, allergic reaction, infection, or disease. Arthralgia occurs commonly in the joints of the hands, knees, and ankles.

Atherectomy (Arthr - Ectomy)

The surgical excision (cutting out) of a joint.

Arthrempyesis (Arthr - Empyesis)

Formation of pus in a joint. It is also known as arthropyosis and occurs when the immune system has difficulty eliminating the source of infection or inflammation.

Arthresthesia (Arthr - Esthesia)

Sensation in the joints.

Arthritides (Arthr - Itides)

Plural form of arthritis.

Arthritis (Arthr - Itis)

Inflammation of the joints. Symptoms of arthritis include pain, swelling, and joint stiffness. Types of arthritis include gout and rheumatoid arthritis. Lupus can also cause inflammation in joints as well as in a variety of different organs.

Words Beginning With "Arthro"

The prefix "arthro" also derives from the Greek "árthron." To ease study and memorization, this section is comprised of terms that begin with "arthro."

Arthrosis (Arthr - Osis):

A degenerative joint disease commonly caused by deterioration of the cartilage around a joint. This condition affects people as they age.

Arthrotomy (Arthr - Otomy)

A surgical procedure in which an incision is made in a joint for the purpose of examining and repairing it.

Arthrocele (Arthro - Cele)

An older medical term that indicates the swelling of a joint. It can also indicate a synovial membrane hernia.

Arthroderm (Arthro - Derm)

The outer covering, shell, or exoskeleton of an arthropod. An arthroderm has a number of joints attached to muscle allowing for movement and flexibility.

Arthrodesis (Arthro - Desis)

A surgical procedure that involves the fixation of a joint in order to promote the fusion of bone. It is typically used to treat chronic pain.

Arthrofibrosis (Arthro - Fibrosis)

The formation of scar tissue due to some trauma or injury within a joint. The scar tissue inhibits overall joint movement.

Arthrogram (Arthro - Gram)

X-ray, fluoroscopy, or MRI used to examine the interior of a joint. An arthrogram is used to diagnose problems such as tears in joint tissues.

Arthrogryposis (Arthro - Gryp - Osis)

A congenital joint disorder in which a joint or joints lack the normal range of motion and may be stuck in one position.

Arthrokinetic (Arthro - Kinetic)

A physiological term of or relating to joint movement.

Arthrology (Arthro - Logy)

A branch of anatomy that focuses on the structure and function of the joints.

Arthrolysis (Arthro - Lysis)

A type of surgery performed to repair stiff joints. Arthrolysis involves the loosening of joints that have become stiff due to injury or as a result of a disease such as osteoarthritis. As (arthro-) refers to a joint, (-lysis) means to split, cut, loosen, or untie.

Arthromere (Arthro - Mere)

Any of the body segments of an arthropod or animal with jointed limbs.

Arthrometer (Arthro - Meter)

An instrument used to measure the range of motion in a joint.

Arthropathy (Arthro - Pathy)

Any disease affecting the joints. Such diseases include arthritis and gout. Facet arthropathy occurs in the joints of the spine, enteropathic arthropathy occurs in the colon, and neuropathic arthropathy results from nerve damage associated with diabetes.

Arthropod (Arthro - Pod)

Animals of the phylum Arthropoda that have a jointed exoskeleton and jointed legs. Among these animals are spiders, lobsters, ticks and other insects.

Arthropodan (Arthro - Podan)

Of or relating to arthropods.

Arthrosclerosis (Arthro - Scler - Osis)

A condition characterized by hardening or stiffening of the joints. As we age, joints may harden and become stiff affecting joint stability and flexibility.

Arthroscope (Arthro - Scope)

An endoscope used for examining the inside of a joint. This instrument consists of a thin, narrow tube attached to a fiber optic camera that is inserted into a small incision near a joint.

Arthroscopy (Arthro - Scopy)

Surgery or procedure which entails using an arthroscope to visualize the interior of a joint. The purpose of the procedure is to examine or treat the joint in question.

Arthrospore (Arthro - Spore)

A fungal or algal cell resembling a spore that is produced by segmentation or breaking of the hyphae. These asexual cells are not true spores and similar cells are produced by some bacteria.

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Bailey, Regina. "Biology Prefixes and Suffixes: arthr- or arthro-." ThoughtCo, Sep. 7, 2021, Bailey, Regina. (2021, September 7). Biology Prefixes and Suffixes: arthr- or arthro-. Retrieved from Bailey, Regina. "Biology Prefixes and Suffixes: arthr- or arthro-." ThoughtCo. (accessed June 8, 2023).