Biology Prefixes and Suffixes: -troph or -trophy

Thin Horses
These horses are showing signs of severe muscle atrophy. Credit: Piccerella/E+/Getty Images

The affixes (troph and -trophy) refer to nourishment, nutrient material, or the acquisition of nourishment. It is derived from the Greek trophos, which means one who nourishes or is nourished.

Words Ending In: (-troph)

Autotroph (auto-troph): an organism that is self nourishing or capable of generating its own food. Autotrophs include plants, algae, and some bacteria. Autotrophs are producers in food chains.

Auxotroph (auxo-troph): a strain of microorganism, such as bacteria, that has mutated and has nutritional requirements that differ from the parent strain.

Chemotroph (chemo-troph): an organism that obtains nutrients through chemosynthesis (oxidation of inorganic matter as a source of energy to produce organic matter). Most chemotrophs are bacteria and archaea living in very harsh environments. They are known as extremophiles and can thrive in extremely hot, acidic, cold, or salty habitats.

Embryotroph (embryo-troph): all the nourishment supplied to mammalian embryos, such as the nourishment that comes from the mother through the placenta.

Hemotroph (hemo-troph): nutritive materials supplied to mammalian embryos through the blood supply of the mother.

Heterotroph (hetero-troph): an organism, such as an animal, that relies on organic substances for nourishment. These organisms are consumers in food chains.

Histotroph (histo-troph): nutritive materials, supplied to mammalian embryos, derived from maternal tissue other than blood.

Metatroph (meta-troph): an organism that requires complex nutritive sources of carbon and nitrogen for growth.

Phagotroph (phago-troph): an organism that obtains nutrients by phagocytosis (engulfing and digesting organic matter).

Phototroph (photo-troph): an organism that obtains nutrients by using light energy to convert inorganic matter into organic matter through photosynthesis.

Prototroph (proto-troph): a microorganism that has the same nutritional requirements as the parent strain.

Words Ending In: (-trophy)

Atrophy (a-trophy): a wasting away of an organ or tissue due to lack of nourishment or nerve damage. Atrophy can also be caused by poor circulation, inactivity or lack of exercise, and excessive cell apoptosis.

Dystrophy (dys-trophy): a degenerative disorder resulting from inadequate nutrition. It also refers to a set of disorders characterized by muscle weakness and atrophy (muscular dystrophy).

Eutrophy (eu-trophy): refers to proper development due to healthy nutrition.

Hypertrophy (hyper-trophy): excessive growth in an organ or tissue due to increase in cell size, not in cell numbers.

Myotrophy (myo-trophy): nourishment of the muscles.

Oligotrophy (oligo-trophy): a state of poor nutrition. Often refers to an aquatic environment that lacks nutrients but has excess levels of dissolved oxygen.

Onychotrophy (onycho-trophy): nourishment of the nails.

Osmotrophy (osmo-trophy): the acquiring of nutrients through the uptake of organic compounds by osmosis.

Osteotrophy (osteo-trophy): nourishment of bone tissue.

Words Beginning With: (troph-)

Trophallaxis (tropho-allaxis): exchange of food between organisms of the same or different species. Trophallaxis typically occurs in insects between adults and larvae.

Trophobiosis (tropho-bi-osis): a symbiotic relationship in which one organism receives nourishment and the other protection. Trophobiosis is observed in relationships between some ant species and some aphids. The ants protect the aphid colony, while the aphids produce honeydew for the ants.

Trophoblast (tropho-blast): outer cell layer of a blastocyst that attaches the fertilized egg to the uterus and later develops into the placenta. The trophoblast provides nutrients for the developing embryo.

Trophocyte (tropho-cyte): any cell that provides nutrition.

Trophopathy (tropho-pathy):  a disease due to a disturbance of nutrition.