Chemical Composition of the Earth's Crust - Elements

Table of Element Composition of the Earth's Crust

The most abundant element in the lithosphere of the Earth is oxygen.
The most abundant element in the lithosphere of the Earth is oxygen. Rost-9D / Getty Images

This is a table that shows the elemental chemical composition of the Earth's crust. Keep in mind, these numbers are estimates. They will vary depending on the way they were calculated and the source. 98.4% of the Earth's crust consists of oxygen, silicon, aluminum, iron, calcium, sodium, potassium, and magnesium. All other elements account for approximately 1.6% of the volume of the Earth's crust.

Major Elements in the Earth's Crust

ElementPercent by Volume
oxygen46.60%
silicon27.72%
aluminum8.13%
iron5.00%
calcium3.63%
sodium2.83%
potassium2.59%
magnesium2.09%
titanium0.44%
hydrogen0.14%
phosphorus0.12%
manganese0.10%
fluorine0.08%
barium340 ppm
carbon0.03%
strontium370 ppm
sulfur0.05%
zirconium190 ppm
tungsten160 ppm
vanadium0.01%
chlorine0.05%
rubidium0.03%
chromium0.01%
copper0.01%
nitrogen0.005%
nickeltrace
zinctrace

Keep in mind, the elemental composition of the Earth's crust is not the same as the composition of the Earth. The mantle and core account for significantly more mass than the crust. The mantle is about 44.8% oxygen, 21.5% silicon, and 22.8% magnesium, with iron, aluminum, calcium, sodium, and potassium. The Earth's core is believed to consist primarily of a nickel-iron alloy.