Science, Tech, Math › Science Chemical Names of Common Substances Alternate Chemical Names of Familiar Materials Share Flipboard Email Print DEA/ARCHIVIO B/De Agostini Picture Library / Getty Images Science Chemistry Basics Chemical Laws Molecules Periodic Table Projects & Experiments Scientific Method Biochemistry Physical Chemistry Medical Chemistry Chemistry In Everyday Life Famous Chemists Activities for Kids Abbreviations & Acronyms Biology Physics Geology Astronomy Weather & Climate by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Updated July 03, 2019 Chemical or scientific names are used to give an accurate description of a substance's composition. Even so, you rarely ask someone to pass the sodium chloride at the dinner table. It's important to remember that common names are inaccurate and vary from one place and time to another. Therefore, don't assume that you know the chemical composition of a substance based on its common name. This is a list of archaic chemical names and common names for chemicals, with their modern or IUPAC equivalent name. You also may be interested in the list of common chemicals and where to find them. Common Chemical Names Common Name Chemical Name acetone dimethyl ketone; 2-propanone (usually known as acetone) acid potassium sulfate potassium bisulfate acid of sugar oxalic acid ackey nitric acid alcali volatil ammonium hydroxide alcohol, grain ethyl alcohol alcohol sulfuris carbon disulfide alcohol, wood methyl alcohol alum aluminum potassium sulfate alumina aluminum oxide antichlor sodium thiosulfate antifreeze ethylene glycol antimony black antimony trisulfide antimony bloom antimony trioxide antimony glance antimony trisulfide antimony red (vermillion) antimony oxysulfide aqua ammonia aqueous solution of ammonium hydroxide aqua fortis nitric acid aqua regia nitrohydrochloric acid aromatic spirit of ammonia ammonia in alcohol arsenic glass arsenic trioxide azurite mineral form of basic copper carbonate asbestos magnesium silicate aspirin acetylsalicylic acid baking soda sodium bicarbonate banana oil (artificial) isoamyl acetate barium white barium sulfate benzol benzene bicarbonate of soda sodium hydrogen carbonate or sodium bicarbonate bichloride of mercury mercuric chloride bichrome potassium dichromate bitter salt magnesium sulfate black ash crude form of sodium carbonate black copper oxide cupric oxide black lead graphite (carbon) blanc-fixe barium sulfate bleaching powder chlorinated lime; calcium hypochlorite blue copperas copper sulfate (crystals) blue lead lead sulfate blue salts nickel sulfate blue stone copper sulfate (crystals) blue vitriol copper sulfate bluestone copper sulfate bone ash crude calcium phosphate bone black crude animal charcoal boracic acid boric acid borax sodium borate; sodium tetraborate bremen blue basic copper carbonate brimstone sulfur burnt alum anhydrous potassium aluminum sulfate burnt lime calcium oxide burnt ochre ferric oxide burnt ore ferric oxide brine aqueous sodium chloride solution butter of antimony antimony trichloride butter of tin anhydrous stannic chloride butter of zinc zinc chloride calomel mercury chloride; mercurous chloride carbolic acid phenol carbonic acid gas carbon dioxide caustic lime calcium hydroxide caustic potash potassium hydroxide caustic soda sodium hydroxide chalk calcium carbonate Chile saltpeter sodium nitrate Chile nitre sodium nitrate Chinese red basic lead chromate Chinese white zinc oxide chloride of soda sodium hypochlorite chloride of lime calcium hypochlorite chrome alum chromic potassium sulfate chrome green chromium oxide chrome yellow lead (VI) chromate chromic acid chromium trioxide copperas ferrous sulfate corrosive sublimate mercury (II) chloride corundum (ruby, sapphire) chiefly aluminum oxide cream of tartar potassium bitartrate crocus powder ferric oxide crystal carbonate sodium carbonate dechlor sodium thiophosphate diamond carbon crystal emery powder impure aluminum oxide epsom salts magnesium sulfate ethanol ethyl alcohol farina starch ferro prussiate potassium ferricyanide ferrum iron flores martis anhydride iron (III) chloride fluorspar natural calcium fluoride fixed white barium sulfate flowers of sulfur sulfur 'flowers of' any metal oxide of the metal formalin aqueous formaldehyde solution French chalk natural magnesium silicate French vergidris basic copper acetate galena natural lead sulfide Glauber's salt sodium sulfate green verditer basic copper carbonate green vitriol ferrous sulfate crystals gypsum natural calcium sulfate hard oil boiled linseed oil heavy spar barium sulfate hydrocyanic acid hydrogen cynanide hypo (photography) sodium thiosulfate solution Indian red ferric oxide Isinglass agar-agar gelatin jeweler's rouge ferric oxide killed spirits zinc chloride lampblack crude form of carbon; charcoal laughing gas nitrous oxide lead peroxide lead dioxide lead protoxide lead oxide lime calcium oxide lime, slaked calcium hydroxide limewater aqueous solution of calcium hydroxide liquor ammonia ammonium hydroxide solution litharge lead monoxide lunar caustic silver nitrate liver of sulfur sufurated potash lye or soda lye sodium hydroxide magnesia magnesium oxide manganese black manganese dioxide marble mainly calcium carbonate mercury oxide, black mercurous oxide methanol methyl alcohol methylated spirits methyl alcohol milk of lime calcium hydroxide milk of magnesium magnesium hydroxide milk of sulfur precipitated sulfur "muriate" of a metal chloride of the metal muriatic acid hydrochloric acid natron sodium carbonate nitre potassium nitrate nordhausen acid fuming sulfuric acid oil of mars deliquescent anhydrous iron (III) chloride oil of vitriol sulfuric acid oil of wintergreen (artificial) methyl salicylate orthophosphoric acid phosphoric acid Paris blue ferric ferrocyanide Paris green copper acetoarsenite Paris white powdered calcium carbonate pear oil (artificial) isoamyl acetate pearl ash potassium carbonate permanent white barium sulfate plaster of Paris calcium sulfate plumbago graphite potash potassium carbonate potassa potassium hydroxide precipitated chalk calcium carbonate Prussic acid hydrogen cyanide pyro tetrasodium pyrophosphate quicklime calcium oxide quicksilver mercury red lead lead tetraoxide red liquor aluminum acetate solution red prussiate of potash potassium ferrocyanide red prussiate of soda sodium ferrocyanide Rochelle salt potassium sodium tartrate rock salt sodium chloride rouge, jeweler's ferric oxide rubbing alcohol isopropyl alcohol sal ammoniac ammonium chloride sal soda sodium carbonate salt, table sodium chloride salt of lemon potassium binoxalate salt of tartar potassium carbonate saltpeter potassium nitrate silica silicon dioxide slaked lime calcium hydroxide soda ash sodium carbonate soda nitre sodium nitrate soda lye sodium hydroxide soluble glass sodium silicate sour water dilute sulfuric acid spirit of hartshorn ammonium hydroxide solution spirit of salt hydrochloric acid spirit of wine ethyl alcohol spirits of nitrous ether ethyl nitrate sugar, table sucrose sugar of lead lead acetate sulfuric ether ethyl ether talc or talcum magnesium silicate tin crystals stannous chloride trona natural sodium carbonate unslaked lime calcium oxide Venetian red ferric oxide verdigris basic copper acetate Vienna lime calcium carbonate vinegar impure dilute acetic acid vitamin C ascorbic acid vitriol sulfuric acid washing soda sodium carbonate water glass sodium silicate white caustic sodium hydroxide white lead basic lead carbonate white vitriol zinc sulfate crystals yellow prussiate of potash potassium ferrocyanide yellow prussiate of soda sodium ferrocyanide zinc vitriol zinc sulfate zinc white zinc oxide Continue Reading Common Chemicals and Where to Find Them Learn the pH of Common Chemicals Like Vinegar and More What Is Road Salt and How Does It Work? 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