Chemistry Glossary Terms Starting with the Letter F

Chemistry Glossary and Dictionary

Fluids include liquids, gases and plasma (shown here).
F is for fluids. Fluids include liquids, gases and plasma (shown here). Luc Viatour

This chemistry glossary offers definitions for terms which are commonly used in chemistry and chemical engineering. These words start with the letter F.

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f subshell - A subshell that corresponds to the angular momentum quantum number l = 3, found in the fourth and higher principal energy levels. Each contains seven orbitals.

f orbital

face-centered cubic - A crystal unit cell that is cubic in shape with identical atoms at each corner and in the center of each face.


Example: Calcium and strontium form this type of unit cell, as do many of the transition elements.

facilitated diffusion - Facilitated diffusion is the spontaneous transport of molecules or ions across a membrane with the aid of transmembrane integral proteins
Also Known As: facilitated transport, passive mediated transport

Fahrenheit - The Fahrenheit temperature scale was developed by Daniel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) and denoted by the symbol °F. This temperature scale is still in use in a few countries, including the United States for mostly non-scientific uses.

It was originally based on three calibrating points. The first point was to allow a mixture of ice, water, and ammonium chloride to reach equilibrium and recorded the lowest temperature as 0 °F.

The second point was recorded at 32 °F when ice would start to form on the surface of still water. The third point was assigned to 96 °F and taken from the body temperature of a person.

This point was later changed the top number at 212 °F for the boiling point of water.

Also Known As: °F

Fahrenheit temperature scale - The Fahrenheit temperature scale is a common non-SI temperature scale used in the United States and Belize defined by assigning the temperatures 32 °F for the freezing point of water and 212 °F for the boiling point of water.

The degree Fahrenheit (°F) is defined by 1/180 the range between these points.

family

Faraday (F) - A unit of charge denoted by F equal to the total charge on 1 mole of electrons. 1 F = 96,487 coulombs.
Common Mistake: confusing a Faraday with a farad, also denoted by F, which is a unit of capacitance.

faraday constant

fat

fatty acid

feedstock

femto - Femto is the prefix associated with x10-15 and is denoted by the symbol f.
Example: The size of a hydrogen atom's nucleus is approximately 1 fm or 1 x 10-15 m.

ferrate - Ferrate is a polyatomic ion with formula FeO42-.

fermium -  Fermium is the name for the element with atomic number 100 and is represented by the symbol Fm. It is a member of the actinide group.

fermentation - Fermentation is a class of chemical processes that produce energy through oxidation reactions with organic compounds.

ferric - Ferric is a deprecated chemistry term for the iron ion with a +3 oxidation state or Fe3+.

ferrous - Ferrous is a deprecated chemistry term for the iron ion with a +2 oxidation state or Fe2+.

ferrum - Ferrum is the Latin name for the element iron. Ferrum is the source for iron's symbol Fe.

filtration - Filtration is a mechanical or physical process to separate solid particulates from fluids.

first law of thermodynamics

fire - Fire is the heat and light formed as a product of an oxygen based combustion.

fire point

fire retardant - A fire retardant is a compound used as an additive to reduce the flammability of a material. Example: Aluminum hydroxide is a fire retardant used in material coatings.

fission

flame test

flammable

flash point - Flash point is defined as the lowest temperature the vapor of a liquid initiates a combustion reaction.

fluid

fluorescence

fluoridated hydrocarbon - A fluoridated hydrocarbon is a hydrocarbon compound that contains one or more fluorine atoms.
Also Known As: organofluoride, organofluorine, fluorocarbon
Example: Fluoroethylene or vinyl fluoride is a fluoridated hydrocarbon.

fluorination - Fluorination is a chemical reaction where a fluorine atom is integrated into a molecule.

fluorine - Fluorine is the name for the element with atomic number 9 and is represented by the symbol Fl. It is a member of the halogen group.

fluorocarbon - A fluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains one or more fluorine atoms.
Also Known As: organofluoride, organofluorine, fluoridated hydrocarbon
Example: Fluoroethylene or vinyl fluoride is an fluorocarbon.

foam

force

formal charge

formalin - Formalin is an aqueous solution of formaldehyde.

formation reaction

formula mass or formula weight

fractional distillation

francium

free electron - A free electron is defined as an electron not bound to an atomic nucleus.

free energy

free radical

freezing

freezing point

freezing point depression

frequency

friable - Friable is a property where a material is easily crumbled or broken down into smaller pieces.
Examples: Styrofoam and sandstone are friable materials.

fuel cell - A fuel cell is a device that converts the chemical energy of a source fuel into electrical energy.

fullerene - Fullerenes are carbon molecules arranged to form spheres, tubes or ellipsoids.
Example: Spherical fullerenes, C60, are known as buckyballs or buckminsterfullerenes.

full range naptha - Full range naptha is a type of naptha distilled from 5- to 12-carbon hydrocarbons boiled between 30 °C and 200 °C.

functional groups or functional moiety

fungicide - A fungicide is a compound which kills fungi. Fungicides are antifungal compounds. 

furanose - A furanose is a five member ring structure containing four carbon atoms and one oxygen atom. Furanose is a simple sugar molecule.

fusion

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