Chemistry Glossary Terms Starting with the Letter M

Chemistry Glossary and Dictionary

Germanium is a gray-white metalloid with a metallic luster.
Germanium is a gray-white metalloid with a metallic luster. Gibe, wikipedia.org

This chemistry glossary offers definitions for terms which are commonly used in chemistry and chemical engineering.

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macromolecular

macromolecule

Madelung's rule

magnesium - Magnesium is the name for the element with atomic number 12 and is represented by the symbol Mg. Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal.

magnetic quantum number

main group

main group elements

malleable

manganese

manometer

Markovnikov addition - Markovnikov addition is an addition reaction between an electrophile compound HX and either an alkene or alkyne where the hydrogen atom of HX bonds to the carbon atom with the most hydrogen atoms in the initial alkene double bond or alkyne triple bond and the X bonds to the other carbon atom.

Markovnikov's Rule - Markovnikov's rule is an addition reaction between a protic acid, HX (X is a halogen atom) and either an alkene or alkyne where the hydrogen atom of HX bonds to the carbon atom with the most hydrogen atoms in the initial alkene double bond or alkyne triple bond and the X bonds to the other carbon atom.
Note: Markovnikov's Rule applies to a specific type of Markovnikov addition reaction. The two terms are not generally interchangeable.

mass

mass defect

mass excess

mass number

mass percentage

mass specific heat capacity - Mass specific heat capacity is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a body per unit of mass.

In SI units, mass specific heat capacity (symbol: c) is the amount of heat in joules required to raise 1 gram of a substance 1 Kelvin.
Also Known As: specific heat, specific heat capacity
Examples: Water has a mass specific heat capacity of 4.18 J. Copper has a mass specific heat capacity of 0.39 J.

mass spectrometer

mass spectroscopy

matter

Maxwellian distribution

measurement

mechanism

medicinal chemistry

Mega

meitnerium

melting

melting point

mendelevium

meniscus

mer

mercaptan

mercapto group

mercury

meso - Meso- is a prefix used in organic chemistry nomenclature to identify substituents occupying a benzylic position, with the first carbon covalently bonded adjacent to an aromatic ring.

mesomerism

met

meta - Meta is a prefix used to describe a molecule where substituents are at the 1 and 3 positions on an aromatic compound. The symbol for meta is m-. Meta can also be used to describe a dehydrated form of an acid or salt.

metabolism

metabolite

metal

metal complex

metallic character

metallic compound

metalloid

metallurgy

metastable

meter

methyl

methylene group

micro

microbicide

microgram

microliter

micrometer - A micrometer is a unit of length equal to 1/1,000,000th of a meter. The symbol for micrometer is μm.
1 μm = 10-6 m.
Also Known As: micron
Alternate Spellings: micrometre
Example: Red blood cells are approximately 10 micrometers in diameter.

micron

microwave

milli

milligram

milliliter -  A milliliter or millilitre is a unit of volume equal to 1/1000th of a liter. The symbol for milliliter is either ml or mL.
1 mL = 10-3 L

millimeter -  A millimeter or millimetre is a unit of length equal to 1/1000th of a meter.

The symbol for millimeter is mm.
1 mm = 10-3 m.

millimeters of mercury

mineral

mineral acid

miscible

mixture

moderator

Mohs scale - Mohs scale is a relative scale rating the hardness of a mineral. A mineral with a high Mohs number is able to mark a mineral with a lower Mohs number. Base Mohs numbers and minerals:

1 Talc
2 Gypsum
3 Calcite
4 Fluorite
5 Apatite
6 Feldspar
7 Quartz
8 Topaz
9 Corundum
10 Diamond

moiety

molality

molar

molar enthalpy of formation

molar enthalpy of fusion

molar enthalpy of vaporization

molarity

molar mass

molar heat capacity

molar volume

mole

molecular equation

molecular formula

molecular geometry

molecularity - Molecularity is the number of molecules involved in a single step of a chemical reaction.

molecular mass

molecular orbital

molecular sieve

molecular weight

molecule

mole fraction

mole ratio

molybdenum

monatomic ion

monochromatic

monodentate

monomer

monoprotic acid

monosaccharide

mother liquor

MSDS

MSG

multiple bond

muriatic acid

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