Science, Tech, Math › Science Names of 10 Common Acids Share Flipboard Email Print ThoughtCo / Hilary Allison Science Chemistry Basics Chemical Laws Molecules Periodic Table Projects & Experiments Scientific Method Biochemistry Physical Chemistry Medical Chemistry Chemistry In Everyday Life Famous Chemists Activities for Kids Abbreviations & Acronyms Biology Physics Geology Astronomy Weather & Climate By Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Chemistry Expert Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. our editorial process Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Updated September 24, 2019 Here is a list of ten common acids with chemical structures. Acids are compounds that dissociate in water to donate hydrogen ions/protons or to accept electrons. 01 of 11 Acetic Acid Acetic acid is also known as ethanoic acid. LAGUNA DESIGN / Getty Images Acetic Acid: HC2H3O2Also known as: ethanoic acid, CH3COOH, AcOH.Acetic acid is found in vinegar. Vinegar contains between 5 and 20 percent acetic acid. This weak acid is most often found in liquid form. Pure acetic acid (glacial) crystallizes just below room temperature. 02 of 11 Boric Acid This is the chemical structure of boric acid: boron (pink), hydrogen (white) and oxygen (red). LAGUNA DESIGN / Getty Images Boric Acid: H3BO3Also known as: acidum boricum, hydrogen orthoborate Boric acid may be used as a disinfectant or pesticide. It's usually found as a white crystalline powder. Borax (sodium tetraborate) is a familiar related compound. 03 of 11 Carbonic Acid This is the chemical structure of carbonic acid. LAGUNA DESIGN / Getty Images Carbonic Acid: CH2O3Also known as: aerial acid, acid of air, dihydrogen carbonate, kihydroxyketone. Solutions of carbon dioxide in water (carbonated water) may be called carbonic acid. This is the only acid excreted by the lungs as a gas. Carbonic acid is a weak acid. It is responsible for dissolving limestone to produce geological features such as stalagmites and stalactites. 04 of 11 Citric Acid Citric acid is a weak acid found in citrus fruits and used as a natural preservative and to impart a sour flavoring. Atoms are represented as spheres and are colour-coded: carbon (grey), hydrogen (white) and oxygen (red). LAGUNA DESIGN / Getty Images Citric Acid: H3C6H5O7 Also known as: 2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid. Citric acid is a weak organic acid that gets its name because it is a natural acid in citrus fruits. The chemical is an intermediate species in the citric acid cycle, which is key for aerobic metabolism. The acid is widely used as a flavoring and acidifier in food. Pure citric acid has a tangy, tart flavor. 05 of 11 Hydrochloric Acid This is the chemical structure of hydrochloric acid: chlorine (green) and hydrogen (white). LAGUNA DESIGN / Getty Images Hydrochloric acid: HCl Also known as marine acid, chloronium, spirit of salt. Hydrochloric acid is a clear, highly corrosive strong acid. It's found in diluted form as muriatic acid. The chemical has many industrial and lab uses. Muriatic acid for industrial purposes typically is 20 to 35 percent hydrochloric acid, while muriatic acid for household purposes ranges between 10 and 12 percent hydrochloric acid. HCl is the acid found in gastric juice. 06 of 11 Hydrofluoric Acid This is the chemical structure of hydrofluoric acid: fluorine (cyan) and hydrogen (white). LAGUNA DESIGN / Getty Images Hydrofluoric Acid: HFAlso known as: hydrogen fluoride, hydrofluoride, hydrogen monofluoride, fluorhydric acid. Although it is highly corrosive, hydrofluoric acid is considered a weak acid because it doesn't usually dissociate completely. The acid will eat glass and metals, so HF is stored in plastic containers. If spilled on skin, hydrofluoric acid passes through soft tissue to attack bone. HF is used to make fluorine compounds, including Teflon and Prozac. 07 of 11 Nitric Acid This is the chemical structure of nitric acid: hydrogen (white), nitrogen (blue) and oxygen (red). LAGUNA DESIGN / Getty Images Nitric Acid: HNO3Also known as: aqua fortis, azotic acid, engraver's acid, nitroalcohol. Nitric acid is a strong mineral acid. In pure form, it is a colorless liquid. Over time, it develops a yellow color from decomposition into nitrogen oxides and water. Nitric acid is used to make explosives and inks and as a strong oxidizer for industrial and lab use. 08 of 11 Oxalic Acid This is the chemical structure of oxalic acid. Todd Helmenstine Oxalic Acid: H2C2O4 Also known as: ethanedioic acid, hydrogen oxalate, ethanedionate, acidum oxalicum, HOOCCOOH, oxiric acid. Oxalic acid gets its name because it was first isolated as a salt from sorrel (Oxalis sp.). The acid is relatively abundant in green, leafy foods. It's also found in metal cleaners, anti-rust products, and some types of bleach. Oxalic acid is a weak acid. 09 of 11 Phosphoric Acid Phosphoric acid is also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid. Ben Mills Phosphoric Acid: H3PO4Also known as: orthophosphoric acid, trihydrogen phosphate, acidum phosphoricum. Phosphoric acid is a mineral acid used in home cleaning products, as a chemical reagent, as a rust inhibitor, and as a dental etchant. Phosphoric acid is also an important acid in biochemistry. It is a strong acid. 10 of 11 Sulfuric Acid This is the chemical structure of sulfuric acid. Sulfuric acid: H2SO4Also known as: battery acid, dipping acid, mattling acid, Terra Alba, oil of vitriol. Sulfuric acid is a corrosive mineral strong acid. Although normally clear to slightly yellow, it may be dyed dark brown to alert people to its composition. Sulfuric acid causes serious chemical burns, as well as thermal burns from the exothermic dehydration reaction. The acid is used in lead batteries, drain cleaners, and chemical synthesis. 11 of 11 Key Points Acids are common in daily life. They are found within cells and digestive systems, occur naturally in foods, and are used for many common chemical reactions.Common strong acids include hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, and nitric acid.Common weak acids include acetic acid, boric acid, hydrofluoric acid, oxalic acid, citric acid, and carbonic acid.