Concentration and Death Camps Chart

Starved prisoners, nearly dead from hunger, pose in concentration camp May 7, 1945 in Ebensee, Austria.
Starved prisoners, nearly dead from hunger, pose in concentration camp May 7, 1945 in Ebensee, Austria. (Courtesy of the National Archives/Newsmakers)

From 1933 to 1945, the Nazis ran camps within Germany and Poland to remove political dissidents and anyone they considered Untermenschen (subhuman) from society. A few of these camps, known as death or extermination camps, were specifically built to kill large numbers of people quickly.

What Was the First Camp?

The first of these camps was Dachau, built in 1933, just months after Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany.

Auschwitz, on the other hand, was not built until 1940, but it soon became the largest of all the camps and was both a concentration and a death camp. Majdanek was also large and it too was both a concentration and death camp.

As part of Aktion Reinhard, three more death camps were created in 1942 -- Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka. The purpose of these camps was to kill all the Jews remaining in the area known as the Generalgouvernement (part of occupied Poland).

When Did the Camps Close?

Some of these camps were liquidated by the Nazis starting in 1944. Others continued to operate until either Russian or American troops liberated them. 

A Chart of Concentration and Death Camps

Camp

Function

Location

Est.

Evacuated

Liberated

Est. No. Murdered

AuschwitzConcentration/
Extermination
Oswiecim, Poland (near Krakow)May 26, 1940Jan. 18, 1945Jan. 27, 1945
by Soviets
1,100,000
BelzecExterminationBelzec, PolandMarch 17, 1942 Liquidated by Nazis
December 1942
600,000
Bergen-BelsenDetention;
Concentration (After 3/44)
near Hanover, GermanyApril 1943 April 15, 1945 by British35,000
BuchenwaldConcentrationBuchenwald, Germany (near Weimar)July 16, 1937April 6, 1945April 11, 1945
Self-Liberated; April 11, 1945
by Americans
 
ChelmnoExterminationChelmno, PolandDec. 7, 1941;
June 23, 1944
 Closed March 1943 (but reopened);
Liquidated by Nazis
July 1944
320,000
DachauConcentrationDachau, Germany (near Munich)March 22, 1933April 26, 1945April 29, 1945
by Americans
32,000
Dora/MittelbauSub-camp of Buchenwald;
Concentration (After 10/44)
near Nordhausen, GermanyAug. 27, 1943April 1, 1945April 9, 1945 by Americans 
DrancyAssembly/
Detention
Drancy, France (suburb of Paris)August 1941 Aug. 17, 1944
by Allied Forces
 
FlossenbürgConcentrationFlossenbürg, Germany (near Nuremberg)May 3, 1938April 20, 1945April 23, 1945 by Americans 
Gross-RosenSub-camp of Sachsenhausen;
Concentration (After 5/41)
near Wroclaw, PolandAugust 1940Feb. 13, 1945May 8, 1945 by Soviets40,000
JanowskaConcentration/
Extermination
L'viv, UkraineSept. 1941 Liquidated by Nazis
November 1943
 
Kaiserwald/
Riga
Concentration (After 3/43)Meza-Park, Latvia (near Riga)1942July 1944  
KoldichevoConcentrationBaranovichi, BelarusSummer 1942  22,000
MajdanekConcentration/
Extermination
Lublin, PolandFeb. 16, 1943July 1944July 22, 1944
by Soviets
360,000
MauthausenConcentrationMauthausen, Austria (near Linz)Aug. 8, 1938 May 5, 1945
by Americans
120,000
Natzweiler/
Struthof
ConcentrationNatzweiler, France (near Strasbourg)May 1, 1941Sept. 1944 12,000
NeuengammeSub-camp of Sachsenhausen;
Concentration (After 6/40)
Hamburg, GermanyDec. 13, 1938April 29, 1945May 1945
by British
56,000
PlaszowConcentration (After 1/44)Krakow, PolandOct. 1942Summer 1944Jan. 15, 1945 by Soviets8,000
RavensbrückConcentrationnear Berlin, GermanyMay 15, 1939April 23, 1945April 30, 1945
by Soviets
 
SachsenhausenConcentrationBerlin, GermanyJuly 1936March 1945April 27, 1945
by Soviets
 
SeredConcentrationSered, Slovakia (near Bratislava)1941/42 April 1, 1945
by Soviets
 
SobiborExterminationSobibor, Poland (near Lublin)March 1942Revolt on October 14, 1943; Liquidated by Nazis October 1943Summer 1944
by Soviets
250,000
StutthofConcentration (After 1/42)near Danzig, PolandSept. 2, 1939Jan. 25, 1945May 9, 1945
by Soviets
65,000
TheresienstadtConcentrationTerezin, Czech Republic (near Prague)Nov. 24, 1941Handed over to Red Cross May 3, 1945May 8, 1945
by Soviets
33,000
TreblinkaExterminationTreblinka, Poland (near Warsaw)July 23, 1942Revolt on April 2, 1943; Liquidated by Nazis April 1943  
VaivaraConcentration/
Transit
EstoniaSept. 1943 Closed June 28, 1944 
WesterborkTransitWesterbork, NetherlandsOct. 1939 April 12, 1945 camp handed over to Kurt Schlesinger