Humanities › English What You Need to Know About Conjunctive Adverbs The Difference Between Conjunctive Adverbs, Conjunctions, and Regular Adverbs Share Flipboard Email Print Don Bayley / Getty Images English English Grammar An Introduction to Punctuation Writing By Richard Nordquist English and Rhetoric Professor Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester B.A., English, State University of New York Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. our editorial process Richard Nordquist Updated February 05, 2020 In English grammar, a conjunctive adverb is an adverb or adverbial phrase that indicates a relation in meaning between two sequential independent clauses (or main clauses). It is also called a conjunct, a transitional conjunction, or a cohesive conjunction. A conjunctive adverb is commonly placed at the beginning of the main clause (where it's usually followed by a comma); accordingly, it may follow a semicolon, but only when both clauses (the one before and the one after the conjunctive adverb) are independent and can stand alone. A conjunctive adverb may appear, on the other hand, almost anywhere in the clause. When used as an interrupting word or phrase, the conjunctive adverb is usually set off by commas on either side. "If you are uncertain whether a connecting word is a conjunctive adverb, test by moving the connecting word to another place in the clause," author Stephen Reid writes in "The Prentice Hall Guide for College Writers," Conjunctive adverbs can be moved; subordinating conjunctions (such as if and because) and coordinating conjunctions (but, or, yet, for, and, nor, so) cannot." Contrast With Regular Adverbs Unlike a conventional adverb, which typically affects the meaning of only a single word or phrase, the meaning of a conjunctive adverb affects the entire clause of which it is a part. For example, a conventional adverb modifies a verb or adjective, such as in "The child just couldn't bear to walk slowly," where slowly gives more information about the verb walk. Or, in "The Halloween costume looked absolutely ridiculous," the adverb absolutely emphasizes the adjective ridiculous. In contrast, a conjunctive adverb pertains to the entire sentence and connects two parts. Or, if it starts a sentence, it can serve as a transition from one statement to another, as in when you want to make a point of contrasting two things in consecutive sentences: "The Halloween costume looked absolutely ridiculous. However, Sam thought it provided the perfect effect." In another distinction between the two types of adverbs, as shown in the list below, a conjunctive adverb may also consist of more than one word, such as in the meantime or at last. Common Conjunctive Adverbs in English Here is a list of examples of conjunctive adverbs. Please note that some words in this list can be other word forms as well; usage will determine which it is. For example, if a sentence reads, "She really should act accordingly," that is a regular adverbial usage. A conjunctive adverbial usage of the word could be something like, "The law changed in the state to allow liquor sales on Sundays; accordingly, retailers had to decide if they would be open that day or remain closed by choice." accordingly afterward again also anyhow anyway as a result at last at the same time before besides certainly consequently conversely earlier eventually finally for example for instance further furthermore granted hence however in addition in any case incidentally in conclusion indeed in fact in short in spite of instead in the meantime later lately likewise meanwhile moreover namely nevertheless next nonetheless now on the contrary on the other hand otherwise perhaps rather similarly so still subsequently that is then thereafter, therefore thus undoubtedly Source Reid, Stephen. The Prentice Hall Guide for College Writers. 6th ed, Prentice-Hall, 2003.