Consider Planting River Birch in Your Yard

More Information on the Beautiful Betula nigra

Birch bark, leaves, fruit and range
River Birch and Range Collage. Wikicommons (GooGoo85 and Greg Hume, USFS

River Birch or Betula Nigra

"The most beautiful of American trees" is what Prince Maximilian, emperor of Mexico thought of river birch (Betula nigra) when he toured North America shortly before his short-lived reign. It is a favorite yard tree in the southern United States but I have to warn you that there is an argument that it is too messy to maintain if you are not hands-on when dealing with your yard.

Also known as red birch, water birch, or black birch, it is the only birch in the genus Betula whose range includes the southeastern coastal plain. It is uniquely the only spring-fruiting birch in North America. Although the wood has limited usefulness, the tree's beauty makes it an important ornamental, especially at the northern and western extremes of its natural range.

River Birch Habit and Range

River birch grows naturally all the way from southern New Hampshire south and west to the Texas Gulf Coast. River birch is well named as it loves riparian (wet) zones, adapts well to wet sites and reaches its maximum size in rich alluvial soils of the lower Mississippi Valley.

Even though it loves wet ecosystems, the tree is very heat-tolerant,can survive modest droughts and does not compete with you lawn for water. River birch transplants easily at any age and grows into a medium tree of about 40' and rarely in an urban environment to 70'.

River birch occupies large eastern north-south ranges in North America - from Minnesota to Florida. The tree needs direct sunlight and is very intolerant to shade. 

Strong Cultivars of River Birch

River birch's "Heritage" cultivar was selected 2002 Tree of the Year by the Society of Municipal Arborists.

The tree's wood has very little commercial value but river birch is extremely popular as an ornamental.

It is hardy in all U.S. climate zones, it is fast-growing, nicely forked, and wind and ice resistant. River birch peels in colorful flakes of brown, salmon, peach, orange, and lavender and is a bonus for regions deprived of paper and white birches.  The best river birch cultivars: 'Heritage', 'Dura-Heat'

Identification of River Birch

The tree has male and female catkins which are grouped in 3s. The small cone-like fruit opens and sheds small nutlet seeds in spring.

The summer foliage has a leathery texture, a dark green upper side and light green on its underside. The leaf is somewhat diamond-shaped with a wedge-shaped leaf base. The leaf has a doubly serrate margin, slightly incised, alternate and ovate. It autumn leaf color is golden-yellow to yellow-brown in good years but leaves drop quickly.

The beautiful peeling (exfoliating) bark exposes a cream-light orange-lavender color to reveal salmon-brown and white patches on the trunk and large branches.

See: Identifying river birch or

River Birch Hardiness Zones:

River birch is hardy through zone 4. See the natural range map on included map image.

Expert Comments

"Most birches are known for their beautiful bark, which can dominate any landscape in the dormant season." - Guy Sternberg, Native Trees for North American Landscapes

"Only the shaggy brown river birch seems truly adapted to cities, holding its own with urban heat blasts and the deadly borer."- Arthur Plotnik, The Urban Tree Book

"'Heritage' river birch is an excellent selection with superior vigor, larger leaves, and greater resistance to leaf spot."- Michael Dirr, Trees