Humanities › English What Are Contractions? Share Flipboard Email Print Derek Abella, ThoughtCo English English Grammar An Introduction to Punctuation Writing by Richard Nordquist Richard Nordquist is a freelance writer and former professor of English and Rhetoric who wrote college-level Grammar and Composition textbooks. Updated July 10, 2019 A contraction is a word or phrase that has been shortened by dropping one or more letters. In writing, an apostrophe is used to indicate the place of the missing letters. Contractions are commonly used in speech (or written dialogue), informal forms of writing, and where space is at a premium, such as in advertising. In very formal writing, such as academic papers, grant proposals, or other works that need to appear professional, you may not want to use contractions at all. Why Do We Use Contractions? We rely on contractions all the time in normal conversation. When people speak to each other, there is typically an expectation that they will use contractions (can't, won't, shouldn't) whenever they can, as doing so saves time. Some people are under the impression that contractions should never appear in writing, but this belief is mistaken. The use of contractions is directly related to tone. In informal writing (from text messages and blogs to memos and personal essays), we often rely on contractions to maintain a colloquial tone. In more formal writing assignments (such as academic reports or term papers), avoiding contractions is a way of establishing a more serious tone. Before deciding whether to use contractions in a writing assignment, consider your audience and your purpose for writing. The Contractive Apostrophe In telescoped words and phrases (e.g., doesn't, there's, sou'wester), an apostrophe marks the spot where one or more letters have been omitted. It is not necessarily where the words have been joined together. This apostrophe is also known as the contractive apostrophe. Some people, including the Irish playwright George Bernard Shaw, have been in favor of eliminating apostrophes entirely. Shaw called them "uncouth bacilli," though it's unlikely that Shaw's analogy to bacteria will help the apostrophe go away anytime soon. Contracted Nouns and Pronouns In casual conversation, contractions involving nouns are fairly common ("My dad'll be home soon"). In writing, however, they're much rarer than contractions with pronouns such as I'll, he'd, and she's. You can contract proper nouns to mean is or has, such as in the sentence "Shelly's coming with us," or "Jeff's bought a new computer." Watch out for the homonyms who's and whose; the contraction is "who is" or "who has," and the whole word is possessive, as in "Whose car is that?" And of course, if you're visiting the South, you'll likely hear the colloquial "y'all" for "you all." Negative Contractions and Verb Contractions Contractions are often made with auxiliary, or helping, verbs, such as to be, do, have, and can. We can say "it isn't raining" or "it's not raining." But we cannot say "it'sn't raining." In negative clauses, we have a choice between using negative contractions like not (n't) and contracting the pronoun and verb (it's). But we can't do both. Contracting 'Not' The contracted form of not (n't) can be attached to finite forms of the helping verbs be, do, and have. However, amn't (mainly Scottish and Irish) is extremely rare, unlike the disparaged ain't. The n't form can also be attached to most of the modal auxiliaries such as can't, couldn't, mustn't, shouldn't, won't, and wouldn't. Yet, you won't hear many Americans saying mayn't or shan't; even those contractions are too formal. Contractions in Tag Questions A tag question is a short question added to the end of a declarative sentence, usually to make sure that something has been done or understood. For example, "It's a tag question, isn't it?" Because of their colloquial nature, negative tags are commonly contracted: didn't we? haven't you? aren't they? This is much less formal than did not we? or did we not? Ambiguous Contractions Most contractions ending in 'd and 's are ambiguous. The 'd can represent either had or would; 's can represent either has or is. All the same, the meaning of these contractions is usually clear from their context. For instance, "Sam's finished his term paper" implies completion in the past (Sam has finished), while "Sam's tired" is in the present tense, meaning Sam is. Multiple Contractions They may look odd in print, but certain multiple contractions such as I'd've (or I'd'a) and wouldn't've are fairly common in speech. We like shortcuts, so it's easy to say something like, "If I'd've told you the real reason, you probably wouldn't've come back with me." Quite often, we don't even notice it. The words just run together as we talk. Under the category of rarities, there are a few double and even triple contracted nautical terms. These include words like bo's'n (short for boatswain) and fo'c's'le (a variant of forecastle), words that landlubbers can probably live without. Before you start recklessly sprinkling apostrophes everywhere, make sure you're not putting an apostrophe plus s on something that should actually be plural: i.e., the greengrocer's apostrophe. Aphaeresis, Syncope, and Apocope Another common type of linguistic shortening (or elision) is the omission of certain sounds or letters from an individual word. In phonetics, elision at the beginning of a word (for instance, gator from alligator) is called aphaeresis. In the middle of a word (ma'am from madam), it is a syncope. When it appears at the end of a word (ad from advertisement), we call it an apocope. Aphaeresis and apocope can occur together, as in flu—a clipped form of influenza. Standard Contractions in English In the following table, you'll find a list of more than 70 contractions in English. aren't are not can't cannot couldn't could not could've could have didn't did not doesn't does not don't do not e'er ever hadn't had not hasn't has not haven't have not he'd he had; he would he'll he will; he shall he's he is; he has I'd I had; I would I'll I will; I shall I'm I am I've I have isn't is not it'd it would it'll it shall; it will it's it is; it has let's let us ma'am madam mightn't might not might've might have mustn't must not must've must have 'n' and needn't need not ne'er never o'er over ol' old oughtn't ought not shan't shall not she'd she had; she would she'll she will; she shall she's she is; she has shouldn't should not should've should have that'd that would that's that is; that has there'd there had; there would there'll there shall; there will there's there has; there is they'd they had; they would they'll they will; they shall they're they are they've they have 'twas it was wasn't was not we'd we had; we would we'll we will we're we are we've we have weren't were not what'll what will; what shall what're what are what's what is; what has; what does what've what have where'd where did where's where is; where has who'd who had; who would who'll who will; who shall who's who is; who has who've who have why'd why did won't will not wouldn't would not would've would have you'd you had; you would you'll you will; you shall you're you are you've you have Continue Reading How to Use English Contractions for ESL Students What Is a Greengrocer's Apostrophe? 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