Mineral Acid Definition and List

Including the Acids Most Commonly Used in a Lab Setting

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A mineral acid or inorganic acid is any acid derived from an inorganic compound that dissociates to produce hydrogen ions (H+) in water. Mineral acids are highly soluble in water but tend to be insoluble in organic solvents. The inorganic acids are corrosive.

Mineral Acids

The mineral acids include the bench acids—hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, and nitric acid—so-called because they are the acids most commonly used in a laboratory setting.

A list of the mineral acids includes:

  • Hydrochloric acid: HCl
  • Nitric acid: HNO3
  • Phosphoric acid: H3PO4
  • Sulfuric acid: H2SO4
  • Boric acid: H3BO3
  • Hydrofluoric acid: HF
  • Hydrobromic acid: HBr
  • Perchloric acid: HClO4
  • Hydroiodic acid: HI
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Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Mineral Acid Definition and List." ThoughtCo, Aug. 28, 2020, thoughtco.com/definition-of-mineral-acid-605353. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2020, August 28). Mineral Acid Definition and List. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-mineral-acid-605353 Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Mineral Acid Definition and List." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-mineral-acid-605353 (accessed April 19, 2021).