Normality is a measure of concentration equal to the gram equivalent weight per liter of solution. Gram equivalent weight is the measure of the reactive capacity of a molecule. The solute's role in the reaction determines the solution's normality. Normality is also known as the equivalent concentration of a solution.

## Normality Equation

Normality (N) is the molar concentration c_{i} divided by an equivalence factor f_{eq}:

N = c_{i} / f_{eq}

Another common equation is normality (N) is equal to the gram equivalent weight divided by liters of solution:

N = gram equivalent weight/liters of solution (often expressed in g/L)

Or it might be the molarity multiplied by the number of equivalents:

## Units of Normality

The capital letter N is used to indicate concentration in terms of normality. It can also be expressed as eq/L (equivalent per liter) or meq/L (milliequivalent per liter of 0.001 N, typically reserved for medical reporting).

## Examples of Normality

For acid reactions, a 1 M H_{2}SO_{4} solution will have a normality (N) of 2 N because 2 moles of H^{+} ions are present per liter of solution.

For sulfide precipitation reactions, where the SO_{4}^{-} ion is the important part, the same 1 M H_{2}SO_{4} solution will have a normality of 1 N.

## Example Problem

Find the normality of 0.1 M H_{2}SO_{4} (sulfuric acid) for the reaction:

H_{2}SO_{4} + 2 NaOH → Na_{2}SO_{4} + 2 H_{2}O

According to the equation, 2 moles of H^{+} ions (2 equivalents) from sulfuric acid react with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to form sodium sulfate (Na_{2}SO_{4}) and water. Using the equation:

N = molarity x equivalents

N = 0.1 x 2

N = 0.2 N

Don't be confused by the number of moles of sodium hydroxide and water in the equation. Since you've been given the molarity of the acid, you don't need the additional information. All you need to figure out is how many moles of hydrogen ions are participating in the reaction. Since sulfuric acid is a strong acid, you know it completely dissociates into its ions.

## Potential Issues Using N for Concentration

Although normality is a useful unit of concentration, it can't be used for all situations because its value depends on an equivalence factor that can change based on the type of chemical reaction of interest. As an example, a solution of magnesium chloride (MgCl_{2}) might be 1 N for the Mg^{2+} ion, yet 2 N for the Cl^{-} ion.

While N is a good unit to know, it's not used as much as molality in actual lab work. It has value for acid-base titrations, precipitation reactions, and redox reactions. In acid-base reactions and precipitation reactions, 1/f_{eq} is an integer value. In redox reactions, 1/f_{eq} might be a fraction.