Spectator Ion Definition and Examples

These ions exist in the same form on both sides of a chemical reaction

A spectator ion appears the same on both sides of a chemical reaction.

ThoughtCo / Hilary Allison

Ions are atoms or molecules that carry a net electrical charge. There are different types of ions, including cations, anions, and spectator ions. A spectator ion is one that exists in the same form on both the reactant and product sides of a chemical reaction.

Spectator Ion Definition

Spectator ions may be either cations (positively-charged ions) or anions (negatively-charged ions). The ion is unchanged on both sides of a chemical equation and does not affect equilibrium. When writing a net ionic equation, spectator ions found in the original equation are ignored. Thus, the total ionic reaction is different from the net chemical reaction.

Spectator Ion Examples

Consider the reaction between sodium chloride (NaCl) and copper sulfate (CuSO4) in aqueous solution.

2 NaCl (aq) + CuSO4 (aq) → 2 Na+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) + CuCl2 (s)

The ionic form of this reaction is: 2 Na+ (aq) + 2 Cl- (aq) + Cu2+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) → 2 Na+ (aq) + SO42- (aq) + CuCl2 (s)

The sodium ions and sulfate ion are the spectator ions in this reaction. They appear unchanged in both the product and reactant side of the equation. These ions just "spectate" (watch) while the other ions form the copper chloride. The spectator ions are canceled out of a reaction when writing the net ionic equation, so the net ionic equation for this example would be:

2 Cl- (aq) + Cu2+ (aq) → CuCl2 (s)

Although spectator ions are ignored in the net reaction, they affect the Debye length.

Table of Common Spectator Ions

These ions are spectator ions because they don't react with water, so when soluble compounds of these ions dissolve in water, they won't directly affect pH and can be ignored. While you can consult a table, it worthwhile to memorize the common spectator ions because knowing them makes it easier to identify strong acids, strong bases, and neutral salts in a chemical reaction. The easiest way to learn them is in groups of three or trios of ions found together on the periodic table of the elements.

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Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Spectator Ion Definition and Examples." ThoughtCo, Aug. 28, 2020, thoughtco.com/definition-of-spectator-ion-and-examples-605675. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2020, August 28). Spectator Ion Definition and Examples. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-spectator-ion-and-examples-605675 Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Spectator Ion Definition and Examples." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/definition-of-spectator-ion-and-examples-605675 (accessed March 24, 2023).

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