Science, Tech, Math › Science Chemistry Definitions: What is a Steric Number? Understanding what a steric number is and how to determine its value Share Flipboard Email Print Sulfur tetrafluoride has a steric number of 5. Ben Mills Science Chemistry Chemical Laws Basics Molecules Periodic Table Projects & Experiments Scientific Method Biochemistry Physical Chemistry Medical Chemistry Chemistry In Everyday Life Famous Chemists Activities for Kids Abbreviations & Acronyms Biology Physics Geology Astronomy Weather & Climate by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. Updated October 05, 2019 The steric number is the number of atoms bonded to a central atom of a molecule plus the number of lone pairs attached to the central atom. The steric number of a molecule is used in VSEPR (valence shell electron pair repulsion) theory to determine the molecular geometry of a molecule. How to Find the Steric Number To determine the steric number, you use the Lewis structure. The steric number gives the electron-pair arrangement for the geometry that maximizes the distance between valence electron pairs. When the distance between valence electrons is maximized, the energy of the molecule is at its lowest state and the molecule is in its most stable configuration. The steric number is calculated using the following formula: Steric Number = (number of lone electron pairs on the central atom) + (number of atoms bonded to the central atom) Here's a handy table that gives the bond angle that maximizes separation between electrons and gives the associated hybrid orbital. It's a good idea to learn the bond angle and orbitals since these appear on many standardized exams. S# bond angle hybrid orbital 4 109.5° sp3 hybrid orbital (4 total orbitals) 3 120° sp2 hybrid orbitals (3 total orbitals) 2 180° sp hybrid orbitals (2 total orbitals) 1 no angle s orbital (hydrogen has an S# of 1) Steric Number and Hybrid Orbital Steric Number Calculation Examples Methane (CH4) - Methane consists of carbon bonded to 4 hydrogen atoms and 0 lone pairs. Steric number = 4.Water (H2O) - Water has two hydrogen atoms bonded to oxygen and also 2 lone pairs, so its steric number is 4.Ammonia (NH3) - Ammonia also has a steric number of 4 because it has 3 hydrogen atoms bonded to nitrogen and 1 lone electron pair.Ethylene (C2H4) - Ethylene has 3 bonded atoms and no lone pairs. Note the carbon double bond. Steric number = 3.Acetylene (C2H2) - The carbons are bonded by a triple bond. There are 2 bonded atoms and no lone pairs. Steric number = 2.Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - Carbon dioxide is an example of a compound that contains 2 sets of double bonds. There are 2 oxygen atoms bonded to carbon, with no lone pairs, so the steric number is 2. Shape Versus Steric Number Another way to look at molecular geometry is to assign the shape of the molecule according to steric number: SN = 2 is linear SN = 3 is trigonal planar SN = 4 is tetrahedral SN = 5 is trigonal bipyramidal SN = 6 is octahedral Key Takeaways for Steric Number In chemistry, a molecule's steric number is the number of atoms bonded to the central atom plus the number of lone electron pairs surrounding the central atom.The steric number is used in VSEPR theory to predict molecular geometry. Continue Reading Learn About Molecular Geometry What Are Electron Domains and How Do They Predict Geometry? What Is Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory? Here's What a Coordination Number Is in Chemistry What Is a Lewis Structure? Definition and Example What Does Molecular Geometry Mean in Chemistry? How to Draw Lewis Structures or Electron Dot Structures Steps to Draw a Lewis Structure for Exceptions to the Octet Rule Draw a Lewis Structure of Formaldehyde Find Chemistry Definitions From A to Z What Is a Ligand in Chemistry A Condensed Formula Indicates the Bonds Between Atoms in a Molecule What Is Bond Energy? Review of Organic Functional Groups Chemistry Vocabulary Terms You Should Know What Is the Carboxyl Group in Chemistry?