Dynamic Signs

Dynamic signs are abbreviations used to signify the volume (loudness or softness) of a piece of music; it also indicates whether there is a change in volume (gradually louder or gradually softer). The table below lists the commonly used dynamic signs.

Dynamic Signs

Dynamic Signs
SignIn ItalianDefinition
pppianissimovery soft
ppianosoft
mpmezzo pianomoderately soft
mfmezzo fortemoderately loud
fforteloud
fffortissimovery loud
>decrescendogradually softer
<crescendogradually louder
rfrinforzandosudden increase in loudness
sfzsforzandoplay the note with sudden emphasis