Chinese engineers and mariners discovered the magical properties of magnetic, iron-rich minerals (called &#34;lodestones&#34;) in the twelfth century, and used these minerals to produce the first magnetic compasses. These new instruments expanded navigational possibilities, as sailors were able have an idea of their heading even while out on the open ocean. (The problem of calculating latitudes would not be solved for several centuries longer, however.)Although some evidence exists that China&#39;s government issued its first paper money as early as 605 CE, paper currency first went into wide circulation in 1165, during the reign of Sung Dynasty Emperor Hiao Tsung. Each note included an official red seal of authenticity, and a drawing depicting its value in silver ingots. The paper money was large, about 8 x 12 inches, and laid out vertically. China abandoned paper currency for several centuries after the fall of the Sung Dynasty.<a href="https://www.thoughtco.com/the-koryo-or-goryeo-kingdom-korea-195363" data-type="internalLink" data-component="link" data-source="inlineLink" data-ordinal="1">Goryeo</a> Dynasty minister Choe Yun-ui of Korea is credited with publishing the first book printed with metal movable type. This book, &#34;Sangjeong yemun,&#34; detailed the manners and social niceties of the Korean court from ancient times through the 1234.Song Chinese general Luo Qianxia used land mines in the Song Dynasty&#39;s (ultimately unsuccessful) attempt to stave off the Mongol invasions. These early mines were triggered either by a rip cord or a complicated motion-detecting booby trap involving pins, flint strikers, and fuses. (They must not have been too reliable, given the touchiness of the system.)<p>Around 1413 - 1415, Korean shipbuilders designed the first turtleboats. These double-masted ironclads were used primarily for ramming pirate ships. Turtleboats came into their own as a weapon of war during the Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592-1598. Admiral Yi Sun-shin used turtleboats to great effect in the <a href="https://www.thoughtco.com/the-battle-of-hansan-do-1592-195791" data-type="internalLink" data-component="link" data-source="inlineLink" data-ordinal="1">Battle of Hansan-do</a>, helping to defeat the Japanese drive through Korea and toward Ming China.</p>The world&#39;s first known toothbrush, with bristles embedded at right angles to the handle, was described in a Chinese encyclopedia in 1498. The toothbrush was made from pig bristles set into a bamboo handle. Toothbrushes spread to Europe some 150 to 200 years later.The Soviet Union launched planet Earth&#39;s first artificial satellite on October 4, 1957. The satellite, known as &#34;Sputnik&#34; - fellow traveller - triggered the space race between the U.S.S.R. and the U.S. Today, thousands of satellites orbit the earth, gathering scientific and intelligence data, transmitting cellphone calls and television shows, and performing other tasks.The world&#39;s most complicated toilets, Japan&#39;s option-packed bidets (often called &#34;Washlets&#34; after the original maker&#39;s brand) provide the ultimate bathroom experience. Features offered may include: a lid that automatically raises and lowers itself, based on motion detectors; a bidet that will squirt warm or cool water for washing private parts, in a steady stream or pulses; an air-dryer; musical accompaniment to cover the sound of urination; a heated seat; and automatic flush. These bidets are so complicated that foreign users often have trouble finding the flush button.<p>Sim Wong Hoo is the founding CEO of <a href="https://www.thoughtco.com/singapore-facts-and-history-195083" data-type="internalLink" data-component="link" data-source="inlineLink" data-ordinal="1">Singapore</a>-based Creative Technology, manufacturer of the Sound Blaster card for personal computers. This card, first produced in 1989, was one of the first commonly used to add sound to computers.</p>The original PlayStation is part of the fifth generation of game consoles, but it was the first to sell 100 million units, and brought gaming to the masses. Ken Kutaragi led development of the PlayStation and its successors until he was demoted in a shocking move by Sony Corp., in 2005.