The End of the Roman Republic Timeline

Illustration of Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus

Corbis / Getty Images

This timeline uses the Gracchi brothers' attempt at reform as the starting point and ends when the Republic has given way to the Empire as evidenced by the rise of the first Roman emperor.

The Gracchi brothers were Tiberius Gracchus and Gaius Gracchus. The two of them were politicians who represented the commoners in the Roman government.

The brothers were progressive activists interested in land reforms to benefit the poor.

In the 2nd century B.C, the two of them tried to reform Rome's social and political structure to help the lower classes. Events surrounding the politics of the Gracchi led to the decline and eventual fall of the Roman Republic.

Overlaps in Roman History

Since beginnings and ends overlap, the final entries of this timeline could also be looked at as the beginning of the succeeding era of Roman history, the Imperial period. The beginning of the final period of Republican Rome likewise overlaps the middle of the Roman Republican period.

The End of the Roman Republic 

133 B.C. Tiberius Gracchus tribune
123 - 122 B.C. Gaius Gracchus tribune
111 - 105 B.C. Jugurthine War
104 - 100 B.C. Marius consul.
90 - 88 B.C. Social War
88 B.C. Sulla and the First Mithridatic War
88 B.C. Sulla's march on Rome with his army.
82 B.C. Sulla becomes dictator
71 B.C. Crassus crushes Spartacus
71 B.C. Pompey defeats Sertorius' rebellion in Spain
70 B.C. Consulship of Crassus and Pompey
63 B.C. Pompey defeats Mithridates
60 B.C. First Triumvirate: Pompey, Crassus, & Julius Caesar
58 - 50 B.C. Caesar conquers Gaul
53 B.C. Crassus killed in (battle) of Carrhae
49 B.C. Caesar crosses the Rubicon
48 B.C. Pharsalus (battle); Pompey killed in Egypt
46 - 44 B.C. Caesar's dictatorship
44 B.C. End of Civil War
43 B.C. Second Triumvirate: Marc Antony, Lepidus, & Octavian
42 B.C. Philippi (battle)
36 B.C. Naulochus (battle)
31 B.C. Actium (battle)
27 B.C. Octavian emperor