Flounder and Founder

The face of a Peacock Flounder camouflaged on the ocean floor, Bonaire, Caribbean Netherlands.
Terry Moore/Stocktrek Images / Getty Images

When used as verbs, the words flounder and founder are easily confused: they sound similar and are often used in similar contexts. The noun flounder refers to a small flatfish. The verb flounder means to struggle, to make clumsy efforts to move or regain one's balance. The noun founder refers to a person who establishes an institution or settlement. The verb founder means to sink or become disabled.


  • “Many people flounder about in life because they do not have a purpose, an objective toward which to work.” (George Halas)​
  • The Turkish man-of-war Ertogrul foundered at sea and 500 members of her crew were drowned.

Usage Notes

  • Archie Hobson
    It is easy to confuse the words founder and flounder, not only because they sound similar but also because the contexts in which they are used tend to overlap. Founder means, in its general and extended use, 'fail or come to nothing; sink out of sight' as in the plan foundered because of lack of organizational backing. Flounder, on the other hand. means 'struggle; move clumsily; be in a state of confusion,' as in ​new recruits floundering in their first week.
  • The American Heritage Dictionary of the English LanguageThe verbs founder and flounder are often confused. Founder comes from a Latin word meaning 'bottom' (as in foundation) and originally referred to knocking enemies down; it is now also used to mean 'to fail utterly, collapse.' Flounder means 'to move clumsily, thrash about,' and hence 'to proceed in confusion.' If John is foundering in Chemistry 1, he had better drop the course; if he is floundering, he may yet pull through.


  • (a) The horse [floundered or foundered] _____ around in the soft snow, whinnying frantically.
  • (b) The Carpathia was 58 miles from the Titanic when it received the distress call from the [floundering or foundering] _____ ship.

Answers to Practice Exercises

  • (a) The horse floundered around in the soft snow, whinnying frantically.
  • (b) The Carpathia was 58 miles from the Titanic when it received the distress call from the foundering ship.
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Your Citation
Nordquist, Richard. "Flounder and Founder." ThoughtCo, Aug. 27, 2020, thoughtco.com/flounder-and-founder-1689560. Nordquist, Richard. (2020, August 27). Flounder and Founder. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/flounder-and-founder-1689560 Nordquist, Richard. "Flounder and Founder." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/flounder-and-founder-1689560 (accessed June 5, 2023).