Formulas of Common Acids and Bases

Hydrochloric Acid
Hydrochloric Acid reacting with potassium. Clive Streeter / Getty Images

Here are the names and formulas of some of the common acids and bases.

Formulas of Binary Acids

A binary compound consists of two elements. Binary acids have the prefix hydro in front of the full name of the nonmetallic element. They have the ending -ic. Examples include hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acid.

Hydrofluoric Acid - HF
Hydrochloric Acid - HCl
Hydrobromic Acid - HBr
Hydroiodic Acid - HI
Hydrosulfuric Acid - H2S

Formulas of Ternary Acids

Ternary acids commonly contain hydrogen, a nonmetal, and oxygen. The name of the most common form of the acid consists of the nonmetal root name with the -ic ending. The acid containing one less oxygen atom than the most common form is designated by the -ous ending. An acid containing one less oxygen atom than the -ous acid has the prefix hypo- and the -ous ending. The acid containing one more oxygen than the most common acid has the per- prefix and the -ic ending.

Nitric Acid - HNO3
Nitrous Acid - HNO2
Hypochlorous Acid - HClO
Chlorous Acid - HClO2
Chloric Acid - HClO3
Perchloric Acid - HClO4
Sulfuric Acid - H2SO4
Sulfurous Acid - H2SO3
Phosphoric Acid - H3PO4
Phosphorous Acid - H3PO3
Carbonic Acid - H2CO3
Acetic Acid - HC2H3O2
Oxalic Acid - H2C2O4
Boric Acid - H3BO3
Silicic Acid - H2SiO3

Formulas of Common Bases

Sodium Hydroxide - NaOH
Potassium Hydroxide - KOH
Ammonium Hydroxide - NH4OH
Calcium Hydroxide - Ca(OH)2
Magnesium Hydroxide - Mg(OH)2
Barium Hydroxide - Ba(OH)2
Aluminum Hydroxide - Al(OH)3
Ferrous Hydroxide or Iron (II) Hydroxide - Fe(OH)2
Ferric Hydroxide or Iron (III) Hydroxide - Fe(OH)3
Zinc Hydroxide - Zn(OH)2
Lithium Hydroxide - LiOH

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Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Formulas of Common Acids and Bases." ThoughtCo, Apr. 7, 2017, thoughtco.com/formulas-of-common-acids-and-bases-603663. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2017, April 7). Formulas of Common Acids and Bases. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/formulas-of-common-acids-and-bases-603663 Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Formulas of Common Acids and Bases." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/formulas-of-common-acids-and-bases-603663 (accessed November 18, 2017).