-GER Verbs - French Spelling Change Verbs

Verbes qui changent d'orthographe

Man directing another with a map
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Verbs that end in -ger, like manger, have a spelling change before endings that begin with the hard vowels a or o. Because g followed by a or o would make a hard g sound (like in gold), e has to be added after g to keep the g soft (as in gel).

In the present tense and the imperative, this g > ge spelling change is found only in the nous conjugation: mangeons. It is needed in the present participle, mangeant, but not the past participle, mangé.

And it occurs in the following tenses/moods:

There is no spelling change in the conditional, future, or subjunctive.

The table below summarizes just the spelling change conjugations, or you can see manger conjugated in all tenses.

All verbs that end in -ger undergo this spelling change, including

   arranger   to arrange
   bouger   to move
   changer   to change
   corriger   to correct
   décourager   to discourage
   déménager   to move
   déranger   to disturb
   diriger   to direct
   encourager   to encourage
   engager   to bind
   exiger   to demand
   juger   to judge
   loger   to lodge
   manger   to eat
   mélanger   to mix
   nager   to swim
   obliger   to oblige
   partager   to share
   rédiger   to write
   voyager   to travel

  Present Imperfect Passé simple Imperfect subjunctive Participles
je mange mangeais mangeai mangeasse
tu manges mangeais mangeas mangeasses    Present
il mange mangeait mangea mangeât    mangeant
nous mangeons mangions mangeâmes mangeassions
vous mangez mangiez mangeâtes mangeassiez    Past
ils mangent mangeaient mangèrent mangeassent    mangé