Fumihiko Maki, Portfolio of Selected Architecture

01
of 12

Architect of Four World Trade Center

Four World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, September 2013
Four World Trade Center in Lower Manhattan, September 2013. Photo ©Jackie Craven

Tower 4 is a skyscraper of dual heights and differing geometries. Floors 15 to 54 have parallelogram-shaped interior office spaces, but the high-rise section of the tower (floors 57 to 72) has trapezoidal floor plans (see floor plans). Maki and Associates designed the tower with indented opposite corners, which allows interior floors to have not four, but six corner offices—column-free, of course.

About 4 WTC:

Location: 150 Greenwich Street, New York City
Design Concept and Development: September 6, 2006 to July 1, 2007
Construction Drawings: April 1, 2008, while foundation was being constructed (January-July 2008)
Opened: November 2013 (Temporary Certificate of Occupancy in the Fall 2013)
Height 977 feet; 72 stories
Architect: Fumihiko Maki and Associates
Construction Materials: Steel, reinforced concrete, glass facade

Architect's Approach:

"The fundamental approach to the design of the project is two-fold - a 'minimalist' tower that achieves an appropriate presence, quiet but with dignity, on a site facing the Memorial and a 'podium' that becomes a catalyst in activating/enlivening the immediate urban environment as part of the redevelopment efforts of lower Manhattan."

Learn More:

Sources: 4 WTC at www.silversteinproperties.com/properties/150-greenwich/about, CBRE Promotional Fact Sheet, Silverstein Properties (PDF download); 4 World Trade Center, Silverstein Properties, Inc.; Architect's Approach from Maki and Associates [accessed September 3, 2013]; 4 World Trade Center Schedule, Silverstein Properties, Inc [accessed November 5, 2014]

02
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Media Lab, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2009

Night photo of lit up urban educational lab, modern design with glass facade
Media Lab at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photo ©Knight Foundation on flickr.com, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic

About MIT Media Lab:

Location: Cambridge, Massachusetts
Completed: 2009
Height: 7 stories
Architect: Fumihiko Maki and Associates
Construction Materials: Structural steel, glass facade
Award: Harleston Parker Medal for Most Beautiful Building in Boston

"He uses light in a masterful way making it as tangible a part of every design as are the walls and roof. In each building, he searches for a way to make transparency, translucency and opacity exist in total harmony. To echo his own words, 'Detailing is what gives architecture its rhythm and scale.'"—Pritzker Jury Citation, 1993

Sources: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, The Media Lab Complex, Projects, Maki and Associates; AIA Architect [accessed September 3, 2013]

03
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Annenberg Center, University of Pennsylvania, 2009

Glass curtain exterior, modern educational box-like structure
Annenberg School of Public Policy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Photo ©lizzylizinator on flickr.com, Creative Commons NonCommercial-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic

As he has in other campus designs (see Republic Polytechnic), Japanese architect Fumihiko Maki has integrated the concept of a Greek Agora into the design of the Annenberg Public Policy Center (APPC).

About APPC:

Location: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Completed: 2009
Interior Agora Space: Maple wood (resilience and stability); radiant floor heated with 82° water; BASWAphon acoustical plaster; wall slats designed to absorb sound
Awards AIA Philadelphia Design Award, AIA Pennsylvania Design Award

Aspects of Maki Modernism:

  • open floor plan and three-story Atrium link building spaces
  • skylights and glass provide abundant light
  • color and shape transition public spaces
  • exterior siding complements nearby buildings
  • multiple exterior heights
  • energy conservation
  • natural ventilation and shading

Sources: Building Fact Sheet (PDF); The University of Pennsylvania Annenberg Public Policy Center, Projects, Maki and Associates [accessed September 3, 2013]

04
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Toyoda Memorial Hall, Nagoya University, 1960

Modern stone box-like structure, low, square columns, flat roof, many openings
Toyoda Memorial Hall Renovation, Nagoya University, in 2010. Photo ©Kenta Mabuchi, mab-ken on flickr.com, Creative Commons ShareAlike 2.0 Generic

Toyoda Auditorium, a major structure on the Nagoya University campus, is important for being the first Japanese project for 1993 Pritzker Laureate Fumihiko Maki. The design shows Maki's early experimentation with modernism and metabolism in architecture, compared with his later projects such as 4 World Trade Center.

About Toyoda Memorial Hall:

Location: Nagoya, Aichi, Japan
Completed: 1960; preservation and renovation in 2007
Construction Materials: Reinforced Concrete
Awards: Japan Institute of Architecture Award, DOCOMOMO JAPAN, Registered Tangible Cultural Property

"I still remember vividly those occasions when I visited with my parents their friend's houses and small exhibition places and tea parlors in public parks. Their very articulated cubic forms, whiteness, floating interior spaces and thin metal railings were my first introduction to modern architecture, and they made a strong impression on me...."—Fumihiko Maki, Pritzker Ceremony Acceptance Speech, 1993

Source: Toyoda Memorial Hall Renovation, Projects, Maki and Associates [accessed September 3, 2013]

05
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Steinberg Hall, Washington University, 1960

Detail of roofline, Steinberg Hall, Washington University, St. Louis
Detail of Steinberg Hall, Washington University, St. Louis. Photo © local louisville on flickr.com, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0)

Steinberg Hall is important for being the first commission for Washington University faculty member Fumihiko Maki. The carved concrete forms show Maki's early interest in combining Eastern origami-like designs with Western modernism. Decades later, Maki returned to the campus to build the Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum.

About Steinberg Hall:

Location: St. Louis, Missouri
Completed: 1960
Construction Materials: Concrete and glass

Source: Historical Campus Tour, Danforth Campus, Mark C. Steinberg Hall [accessed September 3, 2013]

06
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Kemper Museum, Washington University, 2006

Exterior of Kemper Art Museum, stone, attached box construction, with St. Louis snow
Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum at Washington University in St. Louis, winter. Photo By Shubinator (Own work), CC-BY-SA-3.0 or GFDL, via Wikimedia Commons

About Kemper Museum:

Location: St. Louis, Missouri
Completed: 2006
Architect: Fumihiko Maki and Associates
Construction Materials: Steel, reinforced concrete, limestone, aluminum, glass

From 1956 until 1963, Maki was on the faculty of Washington University School of Architecture. His very first commission, Steinberg Hall, was for this University. The Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum and the Earl E. and Myrtle E. Walker Hall are Maki's later additions to the Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts. The cube-like design is reminiscent of metabolism in architecture. Compare the Kemper design with Maki's earlier Iwasaki Museum in Japan.

Source: Museum Architecture by Robert W. Duffy, Washington University [accessed September 3, 2013]

07
of 12

Iwasaki Art Museum, 1978-1987

Resembles stone and glass boxes constructed together
Iwasaki Art Museum Annex, Japan, built in 1987. Photo © architect Kenta Mabuchi, mab-ken on flickr.com, Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic

The Iwasaki Art Museum is a facility on the grounds of the Ibusuki Iwasaki Resort Hotel.

About the Iwasaki Art Museum:

Location: Kagoshima, Japan
Completed: 1987
Architect: Fumihiko Maki and Associates
Construction Materials: Reinforced Concrete
Award: JIA 25 Year Award

Like Maki's Kemper Art Museum, the cube-like design is reminiscent of metabolism in architecture.

Source: wasaki Art Museum, Projects, Maki and Associates [accessed September 3, 2013]

08
of 12

Spiral Building, 1985

Urban building, white aluminum and glass
Spiral Building, 1985, Tokyo, Japan. Spiral Building © Luis Villa del Campo, luisvilla on flickr.com, CC BY 2.0

The Walcoal company, a Japanese manufacturer of lingerie, commissioned Maki to create a multi-use center—commercial and cultural—in the heart of Tokyo's shopping district. The geometric exterior details preview its interior spiral shape. Elements found in many Maki designs include multiple exterior heights and large interior open spaces.

About Spiral:

Location: Tokyo, Japan
Completed: 1985
Other Names: Wacoal Art Center; Spiral Wacoal Art Center
Height: 9 stories
Architect: Fumihiko Maki and Associates
Construction Materials: Steel frame, reinforced concrete, aluminum cladding
Awards: AIA Reynolds Memorial Award, JIA 25 Year Award, Reynolds Memorial Award

Architect's Statement:

"A continuous circular space winds through gallery spaces, a café, an atrium and an assembly hall, creating a 'stage' for people to see and to be seen, interacting with each other and with the artwork. The exterior facade, built up and composed from smaller details, reflects the complex program."

Source: Spiral, Projects, Maki and Associates [accessed September 3, 2013]

09
of 12

Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, 1990

Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium
Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium. Photo © hirotomo on flickr.com (hirotomo t), Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0)

The arena is part of an urban complex of structures with large volume interiors surrounded by exterior open space for public gatherings.

About Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium:

Location: Tokyo, Japan
Completed: 1990
Architect: Fumihiko Maki and Associates
Construction Materials: Reinforced Concrete, Steel Reinforced Concrete, Steel Frame
Awards: Building Contractors Society Prize, Public Building Award - Excellent Award

"There is amazing diversity in his work."—Pritzker Jury Citation, 1993

Source: Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium, Projects, Maki and Associates [accessed September 3, 2013]

10
of 12

Hillside Terrace Complex I-Ⅵ, 1969-1992

Hillside Terrace Complex, urban design, people eating outside
Hillside Terrace Complex, Tokyo, Japan. Photo © Chris Hamby on flickr.com, Attribution-ShareAlike 2.0 Generic (CC BY-SA 2.0)

Hillside Terrace is a planned community incorporating a mix of residential, commercial, and landscaped spaces. Architect Fumihiko Maki designed Hillside over a number of years, before winning the Pritzker Architecture Prize in 1993 but well after contributing to Metabolism 1960: Proposals for a New Urbanism. In Maki's later years, planned areas like the Woodlands Campus of Republic Polytechnic were accomplished without lengthy development phases.

About Hillside Terrace:

Location: Tokyo, Japan
Completed: Six phases completed between 1969 and 1992
Awards: Minister of Education Award for Fine Arts, Japan Art Prize, Prince of Wales Prize in Urban Design, JIA 25 Year Award

"Today the city of Tokyo may be called the world's largest assemblage of industrially produced artifacts (in materials such as metal, glass, concrete, etc.). Having witnessed personally this transformation from a garden city to an industrialized city within the span of a mere fifty years, Tokyo presents for me a rich mental landscape at an almost surrealistic level."—Fumihiko Maki, Pritzker Ceremony Acceptance Speech, 1993

Source: Hillside Terrace Complex I-Ⅵ, Projects, Maki and Associates [accessed September 3, 2013]

11
of 12

Republic Polytechnic, 2007

Modern campus with elevated grass public areas
Republic Polytechnic in Woodlands, Singapore. Photo ©Dana + LeRoy on flickr.com, Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic (CC BY 2.0)

About Republic Polytechnic, Woodlands Campus:

Location: Woodlands, Singapore
Completed: 2007
Size: 11 stories, 11 identical learning pods
Area Size: Site: 200,000 square meters; Building:70,000 square meters; Total Floor Area: 210,000 square meters
Architect: Fumihiko Maki and Associates
Construction Materials: Reinforced concrete, steel

The ancient Greek Agora or meeting place is modernized and dramatically envisioned by Maki's campus design. Elevated walkways of grass connect buildings' access and integrate the natural with man-made pathways at different levels.

Source: Republic Polytechnic, Projects, Maki and Associates [accessed September 3, 2013]

12
of 12

Kaze-no-Oka Crematorium, 1997

Kaze-no-Oka Crematorium integrates into the landscape
Kaze-no-Oka Crematorium, Japan. Photo by Wiiii (Own work), GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0-2.5-2.0-1.0, via Wikimedia Commons

The crematorium complex blends organically with the sacred landscape—the same design principle as with 4 WTC, but with dramatically different results.

About Kaze-no-Oka Crematorium:

Location: Oita, Japan
Completed: 1997
Architect: Fumihiko Maki and Associates
Construction Materials: Reinforced concrete, steel, brick, stone
Awards: Togo Murano Award, Building Contractors Society Prize, Public Building Association Award

"The dimensions of his work measure a career that has greatly enriched architecture. As a prolific author as well as architect and teacher, Maki contributes significantly to the understanding of the profession."—Pritzker Jury Citation, 1993

Source: Kaze-no-Oka Crematorium, Projects, Maki and Associates [accessed September 3, 2013]