Gemstones and Minerals

Minerals and Their Corresponding Gemstone Names

Gemstones. Jasper - Andrew Alden photo

When certain minerals compress under specific conditions, most often below the surface of the earth, a process occurs which forms a new compound known as a gemstone. Gemstones can be made of one or more minerals, and as a result some minerals refer to more than one gemstone name.

In order to better understand the interaction between the two, reference the two charts below — the first details each gemstone and the minerals that combined to form it and the second lists each mineral and the gemstones it can produce.

For instance, Quartz can form Amethyst, Ametrine, Citrine, and Morion (and a few more) gemstones depending on which other minerals and elements compress together and at what depth in the earth's crust and temperature the compression occurs at.

How Gemstones are Formed

Most gemstones are formed in either the crust or the very top layer of the earth's mantle in the molten magma bubbling in the depths of the world, but only peridot and diamonds are formed deep in the mantle. All gems, however, are mined in the crust where they can cool to solidify in the crust, which is made up of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock.

Like the minerals that make up gemstones, some are associated with one kind of rock in particular while others have several types of rock that go into the creation of that stone. Igneous gemstones are formed when magma solidifies in the crust and crystallizes to form minerals then an increase in pressure starts a series of chemical exchanges which eventually cause the mineral to compress into a gemstone.

Igneous rock gemstones include amethyst, citrine, ametrine, emeralds, morganite, and aquamarine as well as garnet, moonstone, apatite, and even diamond and zircon.

Gemstones to Minerals

The following chart serves as a translation guide between gemstones and minerals with each link going to photos of the gems and minerals:

Gemstone NameMineral Name
AchroiteTourmaline
AgateChalcedony
AlexandriteChrysoberyl
AmazoniteMicrocline Feldspar
AmberAmber
AmethystQuartz
AmetrineQuartz
AndalusiteAndalusite
ApatiteApatite
AquamarineBeryl
AventurineChalcedony
BenitoiteBenitoite
BerylBeryl
BixbiteBeryl
BloodstoneChalcedony
BrazilianiteBrazilianite
CairngormQuartz
CarnelianChalcedony
Chrome DiopsideDiopside
ChrysoberylChrysoberyl
ChrysoliteOlivine
ChrysopraseChalcedony
CitrineQuartz
CordieriteCordierite
Demantoid GarnetAndradite
DiamondDiamond
DichroiteCordierite
DraviteTourmaline
EmeraldBeryl
GarnetPyrope, Almandine, Andradite, Spessartine, Grossularite, Uvarovite
GosheniteBeryl
HeliodorBeryl
HeliotropeChalcedony
HessoniteGrossularite
HiddeniteSpodumene
Indigolite/IndicoliteTourmaline
IoliteCordierite
JadeNephrite or Jadeite
JasperChalcedony
KunziteSpodumene
LabradoritePlagioclase Feldspar
Lapis LazuliLazurite
MalachiteMalachite
Mandarin GarnetSpessartine
MoonstoneOrthoclase, Plagioclase, Albite, Microcline Feldspars
MorganiteBeryl
MorionQuartz
OnyxChalcedony
OpalOpal
PeridotOlivine
PleonastSpinel
QuartzQuartz
RhodochrositeRhodochrosite
RhodoliteAlmandine-Pyrope Garnet
RubelliteTourmaline
RubicelleSpinel
RubyCorundum
SapphireCorundum
SardChalcedony
ScapoliteScapolite
SchorlTourmaline
SinhaliteSinhalite
SodaliteSodalite
SpinelSpinel
SugiliteSugilite
SunstoneOligoclase Feldspar
TaaffeiteTaaffeite
TanzaniteZoisite
TitaniteTitanite (Sphene)
TopazTopaz
TourmalineTourmaline
Tsavorite GarnetGrossularite
TurquoiseTurquoise
UvaroviteUvarovite
VerdeliteTourmaline
ViolanDiopside
ZirconZircon

 

Minerals to Gemstones

In the following chart, the minerals in the column on the left translate to the gemstone name on the right, with links contained therein forwarding to more information and additional of the minerals and gemstones associated.


Mineral Name

Gemstone Name
AlbiteMoonstone
AlmandineGarnet
Almandine-Pyrope Garnet      Rhodolite
AmberAmber
AndalusiteAndalusite
AndraditeDemantoid Garnet
ApatiteApatite
BenitoiteBenitoite
BerylAquamarine, Beryl, Bixbite, Emerald, Goshenite, Heliodore, Morganite
BrazilianiteBrazilianite
ChalcedonyAgate, Aventurine, Bloodstone, Carnelian, Chrysoprase, Heliotrope, Jasper, Onyx, Sard
ChrysoberylAlexandrite, Chrysoberyl
CordieriteCordierite, Dichroite, Iolite
CorundumRuby, Sapphire
DiamondDiamond
DiopsideChrome Diopside, Violan
Grossular/GrossulariteHessonite, Tsavorite Garnet
JadeiteJade
LazuriteLapis Lazuli
MalachiteMalachite
Microcline FeldsparAmazonite, Moonstone
NephriteJade
Oligoclase FeldsparSunstone
OlivineChrysolite, Peridot
OpalOpal
Orthoclase FeldsparMoonstone
Plagioclase FeldsparMoonstone, Labradorite
PyropeGarnet
QuartzAmethyst, Ametrine, Cairngorm, Citrine, Morion, Quartz
RhodochrositeRhodochrosite
ScapoliteScapolite
SinhaliteSinhalite
SodaliteSodalite
SpessartineMandarin Garnet
Sphene (Titanite)Titanite
SpinelPleonast, Rubicelle
SpodumeneHiddenite, Kunzite
SugiliteSugilite
TaaffeiteTaaffeite
TopazTopaz
TourmalineAchroite, Dravite, Indigolite/Indicolite, Rubellite, Schorl, Verdelite
TurquoiseTurquoise
UvaroviteGarnet, Uvarovite
ZirconZircon
ZoisiteTanzanite