Science, Tech, Math › Science Gemstones and Minerals Minerals and Their Corresponding Gemstone Names Share Flipboard Email Print Andrew Alden Science Geology Types Of Rocks Landforms and Geologic Features Geologic Processes Plate Tectonics Chemistry Biology Physics Astronomy Weather & Climate By Andrew Alden Geology Expert B.A., Earth Sciences, University of New Hampshire Andrew Alden is a geologist based in Oakland, California. He works as a research guide for the U.S. Geological Survey. our editorial process Andrew Alden Updated May 26, 2019 When certain minerals compress under specific conditions, most often below the surface of the earth, a process occurs which forms a new compound known as a gemstone. Gemstones can be made of one or more minerals, and as a result, some minerals refer to more than one gemstone name. In order to better understand the interaction between the two, reference the two charts below — the first details each gemstone and the minerals that combined to form it and the second lists each mineral and the gemstones it can produce. For instance, Quartz can form Amethyst, Ametrine, Citrine, and Morion (and a few more) gemstones depending on which other minerals and elements compress together and at what depth in the earth's crust and temperature the compression occurs at. How Gemstones Are Formed Most gemstones are formed in either the crust or the very top layer of the earth's mantle in the molten magma bubbling in the depths of the world, but only peridot and diamonds are formed deep in the mantle. All gems, however, are mined in the crust where they can cool to solidify in the crust, which is made up of igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rock. Like the minerals that make up gemstones, some are associated with one kind of rock in particular while others have several types of rock that go into the creation of that stone. Igneous gemstones are formed when magma solidifies in the crust and crystallizes to form minerals then an increase in pressure starts a series of chemical exchanges which eventually cause the mineral to compress into a gemstone. Igneous rock gemstones include amethyst, citrine, ametrine, emeralds, morganite, and aquamarine as well as garnet, moonstone, apatite, and even diamond and zircon. Gemstones to Minerals The following chart serves as a translation guide between gemstones and minerals with each link going to photos of the gems and minerals: Gemstone Name Mineral Name Achroite Tourmaline Agate Chalcedony Alexandrite Chrysoberyl Amazonite Microcline Feldspar Amber Amber Amethyst Quartz Ametrine Quartz Andalusite Andalusite Apatite Apatite Aquamarine Beryl Aventurine Chalcedony Benitoite Benitoite Beryl Beryl Bixbite Beryl Bloodstone Chalcedony Brazilianite Brazilianite Cairngorm Quartz Carnelian Chalcedony Chrome Diopside Diopside Chrysoberyl Chrysoberyl Chrysolite Olivine Chrysoprase Chalcedony Citrine Quartz Cordierite Cordierite Demantoid Garnet Andradite Diamond Diamond Dichroite Cordierite Dravite Tourmaline Emerald Beryl Garnet Pyrope, Almandine, Andradite, Spessartine, Grossularite, Uvarovite Goshenite Beryl Heliodor Beryl Heliotrope Chalcedony Hessonite Grossularite Hiddenite Spodumene Indigolite/Indicolite Tourmaline Iolite Cordierite Jade Nephrite or Jadeite Jasper Chalcedony Kunzite Spodumene Labradorite Plagioclase Feldspar Lapis Lazuli Lazurite Malachite Malachite Mandarin Garnet Spessartine Moonstone Orthoclase, Plagioclase, Albite, Microcline Feldspars Morganite Beryl Morion Quartz Onyx Chalcedony Opal Opal Peridot Olivine Pleonast Spinel Quartz Quartz Rhodochrosite Rhodochrosite Rhodolite Almandine-Pyrope Garnet Rubellite Tourmaline Rubicelle Spinel Ruby Corundum Sapphire Corundum Sard Chalcedony Scapolite Scapolite Schorl Tourmaline Sinhalite Sinhalite Sodalite Sodalite Spinel Spinel Sugilite Sugilite Sunstone Oligoclase Feldspar Taaffeite Taaffeite Tanzanite Zoisite Titanite Titanite (Sphene) Topaz Topaz Tourmaline Tourmaline Tsavorite Garnet Grossularite Turquoise Turquoise Uvarovite Uvarovite Verdelite Tourmaline Violan Diopside Zircon Zircon Minerals to Gemstones In the following chart, the minerals in the column on the left translate to the gemstone name on the right, with links contained therein forwarding to more information and additional of the minerals and gemstones associated. Mineral Name Gemstone Name Albite Moonstone Almandine Garnet Almandine-Pyrope Garnet Rhodolite Amber Amber Andalusite Andalusite Andradite Demantoid Garnet Apatite Apatite Benitoite Benitoite Beryl Aquamarine, Beryl, Bixbite, Emerald, Goshenite, Heliodore, Morganite Brazilianite Brazilianite Chalcedony Agate, Aventurine, Bloodstone, Carnelian, Chrysoprase, Heliotrope, Jasper, Onyx, Sard Chrysoberyl Alexandrite, Chrysoberyl Cordierite Cordierite, Dichroite, Iolite Corundum Ruby, Sapphire Diamond Diamond Diopside Chrome Diopside, Violan Grossular/Grossularite Hessonite, Tsavorite Garnet Jadeite Jade Lazurite Lapis Lazuli Malachite Malachite Microcline Feldspar Amazonite, Moonstone Nephrite Jade Oligoclase Feldspar Sunstone Olivine Chrysolite, Peridot Opal Opal Orthoclase Feldspar Moonstone Plagioclase Feldspar Moonstone, Labradorite Pyrope Garnet Quartz Amethyst, Ametrine, Cairngorm, Citrine, Morion, Quartz Rhodochrosite Rhodochrosite Scapolite Scapolite Sinhalite Sinhalite Sodalite Sodalite Spessartine Mandarin Garnet Sphene (Titanite) Titanite Spinel Pleonast, Rubicelle Spodumene Hiddenite, Kunzite Sugilite Sugilite Taaffeite Taaffeite Topaz Topaz Tourmaline Achroite, Dravite, Indigolite/Indicolite, Rubellite, Schorl, Verdelite Turquoise Turquoise Uvarovite Garnet, Uvarovite Zircon Zircon Zoisite Tanzanite Gemstone Photo Gallery Alphabetical List of Precious and Semiprecious Gemstones What Is the Mohs Scale and How Is It Used? 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