Humanities › History & Culture Geography of Ancient Greece Share Flipboard Email Print Map of the Peloponnese. Clipart.com History & Culture Ancient History and Culture Greece Figures & Events Ancient Languages Egypt Asia Rome Mythology & Religion American History African American History African History Asian History European History Genealogy Inventions Latin American History Medieval & Renaissance History Military History The 20th Century Women's History View More By N.S. Gill Ancient History and Latin Expert M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota B.A., Latin, University of Minnesota N.S. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. our editorial process N.S. Gill Updated February 25, 2019 Greece, a country in southeastern Europe whose peninsula extends from the Balkans into the Mediterranean Sea, is mountainous, with many gulfs and bays. Forests fill some areas of Greece. Much of Greece is stony and suitable only for pasturage, but other areas are suitable for growing wheat, barley, citrus, dates, and olives. It is convenient to divide ancient Greece into 3 geographical regions (plus islands and colonies): (1) Northern Greece,(2) Central Greece(3) The Peloponnese. I. Northern Greece Northern Greece consists of Epirus and Thessaly, separated by the Pindus mountain range. The chief town in Epirus is Dodona where the Greeks thought Zeus provided oracles. Thessaly is the largest plains area in Greece. It is almost surrounded by mountains. On the north, the Cambunian range has as its highest mountain the home of the gods, Mt. Olympus, and nearby, Mt Ossa. Between these two mountains is a valley called the Vale of Tempe through which runs the Peneius River. II. Central Greece Central Greece has more mountains than northern Greece. It contains the countries of Aetolia (famed for the Calydonian boar hunt), Locris (divided into 2 sections by Doris and Phocis), Acarnania (west of Aetolia, bordered by the Achelous River, and north of the Gulf of Calydon), Doris, Phocis, Boeotia, Attica, and Megaris. Boeotia and Attica are separated by Mt. Cithaeron. In northeast Attica is Mt. Pentelicus home of the famous marble. South of Pentelicus is the Hymettus mountain range, which is famous for its honey. Attica had poor soil, but a long coastline favoring trade. Megaris lies in the Isthmus of Corinth, which separates central Greece from the Peloponnese. The Megarans raised sheep and made woolen products and pottery. III. Peloponnesus South of the Isthmus of Corinth is the Peloponnese (21,549 sq. km), whose central region is Arcadia, which is a plateau over mountain ranges. On the northern slope is Achaea, with Elis and Corinth on either side. On the east of the Peloponnese is the mountainous Argolis area. Laconia was the country in the basin of the Eurotas River, which ran between the Taygetus and Parnon mountain regions. Messenia lies to the west of Mt. Taygetus, the highest point in the Peloponnese. Source: An Ancient History for Beginners, by George Willis Botsford, New York: Macmillan Company. 1917.