Humanities › Geography 10 Facts About Chongqing, China Share Flipboard Email Print dowell/Getty Images Geography Country Information Basics Physical Geography Political Geography Population Key Figures & Milestones Maps Urban Geography By Amanda Briney Geography Expert M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento Amanda Briney, M.A., is a professional geographer. She holds a Certificate of Advanced Study in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) from California State University. our editorial process Amanda Briney Updated October 23, 2019 Chongqing is one of China's four direct-controlled municipalities (the others are Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin). It is the largest of the municipalities by area and it is the only one that is located far away from the coast. Chongqing is located in southwestern China within Sichuan Province and shares borders with Shaanxi, Hunan, and Guizhou provinces. The city is known as being an important economic center along the Yangtze River as well as a historical and cultural center for the country of China. Population: 31,442,300 (2007 estimate)Land area: 31,766 square miles (82,300 sq km)Average elevation: 1,312 feet (400 m)Date of creation: March 14, 1997 10 Must-Know Facts Chongqing has a long history and historical evidence shows that the region was originally a state belonging to the Ba People and that it was established in the 11th century B.C.E. In 316 B.C.E., the area was taken over by the Qin and at that time a city called Jiang was built there and the region the city was in was known as the Chu Prefecture. The area was then renamed two more times in 581 and 1102 C.E.In 1189 C.E. Chongqing got its current name. In 1362 during China's Yuan Dynasty, a peasant rebel named Ming Yuzhen formed the Daxia Kingdom in the region. In 1621 Chongqing became the capital of the kingdom of Daliang (during China's Ming Dynasty). From 1627 to 1645, much of China was unstable as the Ming Dynasty began to lose its power and during that time, Chongqing and Sichuan Province were taken over by the rebels overthrowing the dynasty. Shortly thereafter the Qing Dynasty took control of China and immigration to the Chongqing area increased.In 1891 Chongqing became an important economic center in China as it became the first inland open to trade from outside China. In 1929 it became a municipality of the Republic of China and during the Second Sino-Japanese War from 1937 to 1945, it was attacked heavily by the Japanese Air Force. However much of the city was protected from damage because of its rugged, mountainous terrain. As a result of this natural protection, many of China's factories were moved to Chongqing and it quickly grew into an important industrial city.In 1954 the city became a sub-provincial city within Sichuan Province under the People's Republic of China. On March 14, 1997, however, the city was merged with the neighboring districts of Fuling, Wanxian, and Qianjiang and it was separated from Sichuan to form Chongqing Municipality, one of China's four direct-controlled municipalities.Today Chongqing is one of the most important economic centers in western China. It also has a diversified economy with major industries in processed food, automobile manufacturing, chemicals, textiles, machinery, and electronics. The city is also the largest area for the manufacture of motorcycles in China.As of 2007, Chongqing had a total population of 31,442,300 people. 3.9 million of these people live and work in the urban areas of the city while the majority of the people are farmers working in areas outside the urban core. In addition, there is a large number of people who are registered as residents of Chongqing with China's National Bureau of Statistics of China, but they have not yet officially moved into the city.Chongqing is located in western China at the end of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. The region of Chongqing also includes several mountain ranges. These are the Daba Mountains in the north, the Wu Mountains in the east, the Wuling Mountains in the southeast and the Dalou Mountains in the south. Because of all of these mountain ranges, Chongqing has a hilly, varied topography and the average elevation of the city is 1,312 feet (400 m).Part of Chongqing's early development as an economic center of China is due to its geographic location on large rivers. The city is intersected by the Jialing River as well as the Yangtze River. This location allowed the city to develop into easily accessible manufacturing and trading center.The municipality of Chongqing is divided into several different subdivisions for local administrations. There are for example 19 districts, 17 counties and four autonomous counties within Chongqing. The total area of the city is 31,766 square miles (82,300 sq km) and most of it consists of rural farmland outside of the urban core.The climate of Chongqing is considered humid subtropical and it has four distinct seasons. Summers are very hot and humid while winters are short and mild. The average August high temperature for Chongqing is 92.5 F (33.6 C) and the average January low temperature is 43 F (6 C). Most of the city's precipitation falls during the summer and since it is located Sichuan Basin along the Yangtze River cloudy or foggy conditions are not uncommon. The city is nicknamed the "Fog Capital" of China. Reference Wikipedia.org. (23 May 2011). Chongqing - Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia.