10 Geography Facts About Florida

The state of Florida as seen from space.

NASA Goddard Space Flight Center / Flickr / CC BY 2.0

Capital: Tallahassee

Population: 18,537,969 (July 2009 estimate)

Largest Cities: Jacksonville, Miami, Tampa, St. Petersburg, Hialeah, and Orlando

Area: 53,927 square miles (139,671 sq km)

Highest Point: Britton Hill at 345 feet (105 m)

Florida is a state located in the southeastern United States. It is bordered by Alabama and Georgia to the north, while the rest of the state is a peninsula that is bordered by the Gulf of Mexico to the west, the Strait of Florida to the south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Because of its warm subtropical climate, Florida is known as the "sunshine state."

Florida Geography Facts

Florida is a popular tourist destination for its many beaches, wildlife in areas like the Everglades, large cities such as Miami, and theme parks like Walt Disney World. Discover 10 more geography facts about Florida.

1. Many Indigenous Peoples Lived Here

Florida was first inhabited by a number of different Indigenous tribes thousands of years prior to any European exploration of the region. The largest known tribes in Florida were the Seminole, Apalachee, Ais, Calusa, Timucua, and Tocabago.

2. It Was Discovered in 1513

On April 2, 1513, Juan Ponce de León was one of the first Europeans to discover Florida. He named it as the Spanish term for "flowered land." Following Ponce de León's discovery of Florida, both the Spanish and the French began to build settlements in the region. In 1559, Spanish Pensacola was established as the first permanent European settlement in what would become the United States.

3. It's the 27th State

Florida officially entered the U.S. on March 3, 1845, as the 27th state. As the state grew, settlers began to force out the Seminole tribe. This resulted in the Third Seminole War, which lasted from 1855 to 1858 and resulted in most of the tribe being moved to other states (such as Oklahoma and Mississippi).

4. Tourism Drives the Economy

Florida's economy is based mainly on services related to tourism, financial services, trade, transportation, public utilities, manufacturing, and construction. Tourism is the largest sector of Florida's economy.

5. The State Relies on Fishing

Fishing is also a large industry in Florida. In 2009, the state made $6 billion and employed 60,000 Floridians. A large oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in April 2010 threatened both the fishing and tourism industries in the state.

6. It's Low-Lying

Most of Florida's land area is built on a large peninsula between the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Because Florida is surrounded by water, much of it is low-lying and flat. Its highest point, Britton Hill, is only 345 feet (105 m) above sea level. This makes it the lowest high point of any U.S. state. Northern Florida has a more varied topography, with gently rolling hills. However, it also has relatively low elevations.

7. It Rains Year-Round

Florida's climate is highly affected by its maritime location as well as its southern U.S. latitude. The northern parts of the state have a climate that's considered humid subtropical, while the southern portions (including the Florida Keys) are tropical. Jacksonville, in northern Florida, has an average January low temperature of 45.6 degrees F (7.5 degrees C) and a July high of 89.3 degrees F (32 degrees C). Miami, on the other hand, has a January low of 59 degrees F (15 degrees C) and a July high of 76 degrees F (24 degrees C). Rain is common year-round in Florida. The state is also prone to hurricanes.

8. It Has Rich Biodiversity

Wetlands like the Everglades are common throughout Florida and as a result, the state is rich in biodiversity. It is home to many endangered species and marine mammals like the bottlenose dolphin and the manatee, reptiles like the alligator and sea turtles, large land mammals like the Florida panther, as well as a plethora of birds, plants, and insects. Many species also breed in Florida due to its mild climate and warm waters.

9. The People Are Diverse, Too

Florida has the fourth highest population of any state in the U.S. and it is one of the country's fastest growing. A large portion of Florida's population is considered Hispanic, but the majority of the state is Caucasian. South Florida also has significant populations of people from Cuba, Haiti, and Jamaica. Additionally, Florida is known for its large retirement communities.

10. It Has Many Higher Education Options

In addition to its biodiversity, large cities, and famous theme parks, Florida is also known for its well-developed university system. There are a number of large public universities in the state, such as Florida State University and the University of Florida, as well as many large private universities and community colleges.


Unknown. "Florida." Infoplease, 2018.

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Briney, Amanda. "10 Geography Facts About Florida." ThoughtCo, Jul. 30, 2021, thoughtco.com/geography-of-florida-1435727. Briney, Amanda. (2021, July 30). 10 Geography Facts About Florida. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/geography-of-florida-1435727 Briney, Amanda. "10 Geography Facts About Florida." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/geography-of-florida-1435727 (accessed May 30, 2023).