Essential Facts about Russia's 21 Republics

A Globe Showing Russia

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Russia, officially called the Russian Federation, is located in Eastern Europe and stretches from its borders with Finland, Estonia, Belarus, and Ukraine through the Asian continent where it meets Mongolia, China and the Sea of Okhotsk. At approximately 6,592,850 square miles, Russia is the world's largest country based on area. Russia is so large that it covers 11 time zones.

Because of its large size, Russia is divided into 83 federal subjects (members of the Russian Federation) for local administration throughout the country. Twenty-one of those federal subjects are considered republics. A republic in Russia is an area that is comprised of people who are not of Russian ethnicity. Russia's republics are thus able to set their official languages and establish their constitutions.

The following is a list of Russia's republics ordered alphabetically. The republic's continental location, area, and official languages have been included for reference.

Adygea

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 2,934 square miles (7,600 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Adyghe

Altai

  • Continent: Asia
  • Area: 35,753 square miles (92,600 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Altay

Bashkortostan

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 55,444 square miles (143,600 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Bashkir

Buryatia

  • Continent: Asia
  • Area: 135,638 square miles (351,300 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Buryat

Dagestan

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 19,420 square miles (50,300 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian, Aghul, Avar, Azeri, Chechen, Dargwa, Kumyk, Lak, Lezgian, Nogai, Rutul, Tabasaran, Tat and Tsakhur

Chechnya

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 6,680 square miles (17,300 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Chechen

Ingushetia

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 1,351 square miles (3,500 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Ingush

Kabardino-Balkaria

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 4,826 square miles (12,500 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian, Kabardian and Balkar

Kalmykia

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 29,382 square miles (76,100 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Kalmyk

Karachay-Cherkessia

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 5,444 square miles (14,100 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian, Abaza, Cherkess, Karachay and Nogai

Karelia

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 66,564 square miles (172,400 sq km)
  • Official Language: Russian

Komi

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 160,580 square miles (415,900 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Komi

Mari El

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 8,957 square miles (23,200 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Mari

Mordovia

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 10,115 square miles (26,200 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Mordvin

Sakha

  • Continent: Asia
  • Area: 1,198,152 square miles (3,103,200 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Sakha

North Ossetia-Alania

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 3,088 square miles (8,000 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Ossetic

Tatarstan

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 26,255 square miles (68,000 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Tatar

Tuva

  • Continent: Asia
  • Area: 65,830 square miles (170,500 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Tuvan

Udmurtia

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 16,255 square miles (42,100 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Udmurt

Khakassia

  • Continent: Asia
  • Area: 23,900 square miles (61,900 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Khakass

Chuvashia

  • Continent: Europe
  • Area: 7,065 square miles (18,300 sq km)
  • Official Languages: Russian and Chuvash