Gurmukhi Vowels (Laga Matra) Illustrated

01
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Gurmukhi Vowel Mukta - A With Illustrated Pronunciation Guide

Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Mukta - A
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Mukta - A. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Phonetic Spelling and Pronounciation Guide

Gurmukhi Laga Matra - Vowels and Vowel Holders

The Gurmukhi script of Gurbani is identical to the Punjabi alphabet with three vowel holders, two nasalization characters and 10 vowels. The vowel holders are grouped with the 35 akhar, or Gurmukhi alphabet consonants. The vowel known as "mukta," meaning "liberation" has no symbol, yet is pronounced between each and every consonant wherever no other vowel is present. Each vowel character represents a single phonetic sound. Vowels are used in combination to produce additional vowel sounds.

The vowel holders are used at the beginning of words that start with a vowel as a place holder for the vowel, and where there is no consonant between vowel sounds. Vowel symbols are noted above, below, or to either side of consonants, or their respective vowel holders. Gurmukhi is a poetic language. Vowels have either short or long sounds, the latter are held stressing a double count, or beat. Gurmukhi language is tonal having a low, high, and mid range inflection which has no written indicator and must be heard aloud to be learned.

Mukta is a Gurmukhi vowel.

Gurmukhi Vowel Mukta Represented by A

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Mukta, represented phonetically by English character a, is one of 10 vowels of the Gurmukhi script in which Gurbani of Sikh scripture is written.

Mukta means liberated and thus has no symbol or character to represent it in the Gurmukhi alphabet. The invisible Gurmukhi vowel Mukta is designated only by the horizontal connecting line of the Gurmukhi script. Mukta is pronounced between all consonants with the exception of those followed with a paireen subjoined subscript consonant indicating that no Mukta is present.

Romanized Phonetic Spelling and Pronunciation Guide

  • Vowel Pronunciation: Mukta represents a short vowel sound with a single beat, symbolized by a. The vowel Mukta is pronounced like the a in about, or another. Mukta is always pronounced following a consonant or vowel holder.
  • Simple Spelling: The Romanized spelling Mukta is the most simple phonetic transliteration. Phonetic spellings may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani and Punjabi.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spellings: The word Mukta is transliterated using English character K to represent Gurmukhi consonant . The first vowel of the word Mukta is Aunkar and sounds similar to the u in put. The alternate long form phonetic spelling of Mukta is Muktaa with stress is on the final vowel aa Kannaa.
  • Incorrect Spellings: The transliteration Mukhta is a phonetically incorrect spelling as represents another consonant .

Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant, are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Mukta is associated in conjunction with the vowel holder Airraa. Mukta also uses the vowel holder Airraa within words that feature vowel combinations.

02
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Gurmukhi Vowel Kanna - AA With Illustrated Pronunciation Guide

Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Kanna - AA
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Kanna - AA. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Kanna is a Gurmukhi vowel.

Gurmukhi Vowel Kanna Represented by AA

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Kanna, represented phonetically by English double aa, is one of 10 vowels of the Gurmukhi alphabet in which Gurbani of Sikh scripture is written.

Kanna is written by drawing a vertical line beneath the horizontal connecting line of Gurmukhi script.

Romanized Phonetic Spelling and Pronunciation Guide

  • Vowel Pronunciation: Kanna represents a long vowel sound with a double beat symbolized by aa and is pronounced like the a in awe, or paw. Kanaa is both written and pronounced after any consonant, or vowel holder, that it follows.
  • Simple Spelling: The Romanized spelling Kanna is the most simple phonetic transliteration. Phonetic spellings may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani and Punjabi.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spellings: The alternate long form phonetic spelling of Kanna is Kannaa, transliterated by the Gurmukhi consonant The first syllable is pronounced with the short vowel a sound of Mukta. The second syllable has a long double aa sound with stress on the final vowel. (The English word canoe has a similar stress on its final vowel.) 
  • Incorrect Spellings: The transliteration Khanna is a phonetically incorrect spelling as represents the consonant which is pronounced differently.

Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Kanna is written following the consonant and pronounced after its vowel holder Airraa. Kanna also uses the vowel holder Airraa within words having vowel combinations.

03
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Gurmukhi Vowel Sihari - I With Illustrated Pronunciation Guide

Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Sihari - I
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Sihari - I. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Sihari is a Gurmukhi vowel.

Gurmukhi Vowel Sihari Represented by I

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Sihari, represented phonetically by English character i, is one of 10 vowels of the Gurmukhi script in which Gurbani of Sikh scripture is written.

Sihari is written by drawing a hooked curved line above and down through the horizontal connecting line of the Gurmukhi script. The curve hooks towards the consonant that it precedes.

Romanized Phonetic Spelling and Pronunciation Guide

  • Vowel Pronunciation: Sihari has a short vowel sound with a single beat symbolized by i, and is pronounced with the sound of i as in is, or it. Sihari is always written before, but is pronounced after a consonant, or vowel holder that it precedes.
  • Simple Spelling:The Romanized spelling Sihari is the most simple phonetic transliteration. Spelling may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani or Punjabi.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spellings: The alternate long form phonetic spelling of Sihari is Sihaaree. The first syllable of transliteration Sihaaree is pronounced with the short vowel sound i. Stress is on the vowel sounds of second and third syllables. The second syllable is pronounced with the long double aa of Kannaa. The third syllable is pronounced long sound of ee of the vowel Bihari.
  • Incorrect Spellings: The transliterated spelling Seehari is phonetically incorrect.

Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels at the beginning of a word are written in conjunction with a vowel holder. At the beginning of a word, Sihari is written before, but pronounced after its vowel holder Eerree. Sihari is also written before, but pronounced after its vowel holder Eerree, within words having vowel combinations.

04
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Gurmukhi Vowel Bihari - EE With Illustrated Pronunciation Guide

Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Bihari - EE
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Bihari - EE. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Bihari is a Gurmukhi vowel.

Gurmukhi Vowel Bihari Represented by EE

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Bihari, represented phonetically by English double ee, is one of 10 vowels of the Gurmukhi script in which Gurbani of Sikh scripture is written.

Bihari is written by drawing a hooked curved line above and down through the horizontal connecting line of the Gurmukhi script. The curve hooks from behind the consonant that it follows.

Romanized Phonetic Spelling and Pronunciation Guide

  • Vowel Pronunciation: Bihari has a long vowel sound with a double beat symbolized by ee, and is pronounced with the sound of ee as in see, or ie as in cookie. The Gurmukhi vowel Bihari is both written and pronounced after the consonant which precedes it.
  • Simple Spelling: The Romanized transliteration Bihari is the most simple phonetic spelling. Transliterated spellings may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani or Punjabi.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spellings: The alternate long form phonetic spelling of Bihari is Bihaaree. The Gurmukhi consonant Babba represented by is pronounced with out air. The first syllable of transliteration Bihaaree is pronounced with the short vowel sound i. Stress is on the vowel sounds of second and third syllables. The second syllable is pronounced with the long double aa of Kannaa. The third syllable is pronounced long sound of ee of the vowel Bihari.
  • Incorrect Spellings: The transliterated spelling Beehari is phonetically incorrect.

Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Bihari is written after and pronounced following its vowel holder . Bihari also uses the vowel holder Eerree within words that feature vowel combinations.

05
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Gurmukhi Vowel Aunkar - U With Illustrated Pronunciation Guide

Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Aunkar - U
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Aunkar - U. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Aunkar is a Gurmukhi vowel.

Gurmukhi Vowel Aunkar Represented by U

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Aunkar, represented phonetically by English character u, is one of 10 vowels of the Gurmukhi script in which Gurbani of Sikh scripture is written.

Aunkar is written beneath the consonant it follows by drawing a short vertical dash which may be straight, or slightly curved up on both ends (like the bottom of a very abbreviated u).

Romanized Phonetic Spelling and Pronunciation Guide

  • Vowel Pronunciation: Aunkar has a short vowel sound with a single beat symbolized by u that is pronounced with the sound of u as in put, which also sounds like the oo in foot, or book, and good. Aunkar is written beneath, but is pronounced after the consonant. 
  • Simple Spelling: The Romanized transliteration Aunkar is a short form simple spelling. Transliterated spellings are phonetic and may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani or Punjabi.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spellings: Aunkar is sometimes shortened further for simplicity sake of spelling may be alternately transliterated phonetically also as Ankar or Unkar The long form Romanized spelling Aunkarh is most phonetically correct. The first syllable Kanora is pronounced au as in aura. The second syllable Gurmukhi consonant , pronounced holding back air, the vowel has the short a sound of Mukta, followed by the aspirated .
  • Incorrect Spellings: The transliterated spelling Onkar is phonetically incorrect.

Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Aunkar is written below and pronounced after its the vowel holder Oorraa. Aunkar also uses the vowel holder Oorraa within words that feature vowel combinations.

06
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Gurmukhi Vowel Dulankar - OO With Illustrated Pronunciation Guide

Gurmukhi LAga Matra Vowel Dulankar - OO
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi LAga Matra Vowel Dulankar - OO. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Dulankar is a Gurmukhi vowel.

Gurmukhi Vowel Dulankar Represented by OO

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Dulankar, represented phonetically by double oo, is one of 10 vowels of the Gurmukhi script in which Gurbani of Sikh scripture is written.

Dulankar is written beneath the consonant it follows by drawing two short vertical dashes one under the other. The dashes may be  straight, or slightly curved up on both ends. (like the bottoms of a very abbreviated u, stacked one on top of the other).

Romanized Phonetic Spelling and Pronunciation Guide

  • Vowel Pronunciation: Dulankar has a long vowel sound with a double beat symbolized by oo, and for simplicity sake of spelling sometimes u. Dulankar is however, always pronounced with the sound of oo as in boot, loot, and root, also ou as in you, or ui as in suit. Dulankar is written beneath, but pronounced after the consonant.
  • Simple Spelling: The Romanized transliteration Dulankar is the most phonetically simple spelling. Transliteration spellings may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani or Punjabi.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spellings: Dulankar may also be also phonetically spelled Dulainkar, or Dulenkar. The most phonetically correct long form transliterated spelling of Dulankar is Doolainkarh.  The D of Dulainkarh represents Gurmukhi consonant , and is pronounced with tongue behind upper teeth. The first syllable has the long vowel sound of oo. The second syllable is a short vowel represented by ai of Dulavan pronounced to sound like the a of can. The third syllable Gurmukhi consonant is pronounced holding back air, the vowel has the short a sound of Mukta, followed by the aspirated .
  • Incorrect Spellings: The transliterated spellings Dulunkar, Dulaunkar, and Dulonkar are all phonetically incorrect.

Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Dulankar is written below and pronounced after its vowel holder Oorraa. Dulankar also uses the vowel holder Oorraa within words that feature vowel combinations.

07
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Gurmukhi Vowel Lavan - AE With Illustrated Pronunciation Guide

Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Lavan - AE
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Lavan - AE. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Lavan is a Gurmukhi vowel.

Gurmukhi Vowel Lavan Represented by AE

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Lavan, represented phonetically by English characters ae, is one of 10 vowels of the Gurmukhi script in which Gurbani of Sikh scripture is written.

Lavan is written by drawing a short curve similar to a coma on a 45 degree angle over the consonant it follows. The pointed end of Lavan touches the horizontal connecting line of the Gurmukhi script on the right side of the consonant below.

Romanized Phonetic Spelling and Pronunciation Guide

  • Vowel Pronunciation: Lavan has a long vowel sound with a double beat symbolized by ae, and sometimes e, or ay. Lavan is pronounced with the sound of a followed by e as in name and lane, also ai as in rain or gain, and ae as in faerie, as well as ea as in yea, or ay as in hay. Lavan is written above, and pronounced after the consonant.
  • Simple Spellings: The Romanized transliterations Lawa and Lavan are the most phonetically simple spellings. English characters v and w represent the Gurmukhi vavva and are interchangeable as transliteration spellings may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani or Punjabi.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spellings: The most phonetically correct long form transliterated spellings of Lavan are either Laavaan or Laawaan. Both first and second syllable vowels have the long double aa sound of Kannaa. The second syllable n, or absence of n, indicates nasalization and represents the Gurmukhi bindi.
  • Incorrect Spelling: The phonetic spelling Lavam is incorrect as the m phonetically represents the nasalization indicator tipi rather than bindi.

Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Lavan is written above and pronounced after its vowel holder Eerree. Lavan also uses the vowel holder Eerree within words that feature vowel combinations.

08
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Gurmukhi Vowel Dulavan - AI With Illustrated Pronunciation Guide

Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Dulavan - AI
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Dulavan - AI. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Dulavan is a Gurmukhi vowel.

Gurmukhi Vowel Dulavan Represented by AI

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Dulavan represented phonetically by English characters ai, is one of 10 vowels of the Gurmukhi script in which Gurbani of Sikh scripture is written.

Dulavan is written by drawing two short curves similar to a coma on a 45 degree angle over the consonant it follows. The pointed ends of Dulavan connect (like a curvy v) where they touch the horizontal connecting line of the Gurmukhi script on the right side of the consonant below.

Romanized Phonetic Spelling and Pronunciation Guide

  • Vowel Pronunciation: Dulavan has a short vowel sound with a single beat symbolized by ai, and sometimes e. Dulavan is correctly pronounced with the sound of a as in at, hat, or cat. Dulavan is written above, and pronounced after the consonant.
  • Simple Spellings: Dulawa and Dulavan are the most phonetically simple spellings. English characters v and w represent the Gurmukhi vavva and are interchangeable as transliteration spellings may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani or Punjabi.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spellings: The most phonetically correct long form transliterated spellings of Dulavan are either Dulaavaan or Dulaawaan. The D of Dulainkarh represents Gurmukhi consonant , and is pronounced with tongue behind upper teeth. The first syllable has the long vowel sound of oo. Both first and second syllable vowels of have the long double aa sound of Kannaa. The second syllable n, or absence of n, indicates nasalization and represents the Gurmukhi bindi.
  • Incorrect Spelling: The phonetic spelling Dulavam is incorrect as the m phonetically represents the nasalization indicator tipi rather than bindi.

Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Dulavan is written above and pronounced after its vowel holder Airraa. Dulavan also uses the vowel holder Airraa within words that feature vowel combinations.

09
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Gurmukhi Vowel Hora - O With Illustrated Pronunciation Guide

Hora
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Hora. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Hora is a Gurmukhi vowel.

Gurmukhi Vowel Hora Represented by O

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Hora, represented phonetically by English characters O, is one of 10 vowels of the Gurmukhi script in which Gurbani of Sikh scripture is written.

Hora is written by drawing a short abbreviated s curve similar to a ~ flipped over, and tilted to a 45 degree angle, over the consonant it follows. The end of Hora touches the horizontal connecting line of the Gurmukhi script on the right side of the consonant below.

Romanized Phonetic Spelling and Pronunciation Guide

  • Vowel Pronunciation: Hora has a long vowel sound with a double beat symbolized by o and is pronounced like the o in so, and also with the sound of o in bow, know, or low, as well as followed by e as it note, or oa as in boat or oat. Hora is written above and pronounced after a consonant.
  • Simple Spelling: Hora is the most phonetically simple spelling, however spelling may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani or Punjabi.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spellings: The most phonetically correct long form transliterated spelling of Hora is Horhaa.The Romanized transliteration may be also spelled Horaa. The first syllable o (Hora) is followed by the aspirated . The second syllable vowel has the long double aa sound of Kannaa.
  • Incorrect Spelling: The phonetic spelling Haura is incorrect.

Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. A open variation of Hora is written above and pronounced after its vowel holder Oorraa. Another closed variation of Hora also is represented by the stand alone vowel holder Oorraa within words that feature vowel combinations.

10
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Gurmukhi Vowel Kanora - AU With Illustrated Pronunciation Guide

Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Kanora - AU
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi Laga Matra Vowel Kanora - AU. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Kanaora is a Gurmukhi vowel.

Gurmukhi Vowel Kanora Represented by AU

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Kanora represented phonetically by English characters au, is one of 10 vowels of the Gurmukhi script in which Gurbani of Sikh scripture is written.

Kanora is written by drawing a short abbreviated s curve similar to a ~ flipped over, and tilted to a 45 degree angle, over the consonant it follows. The end of Kanora touches the horizontal connecting line of the Gurmukhi script on the right side of the consonant below and circles back to touch the line again to its left. 

Kanora has a short vowel sound with a single beat symbolized by au and is pronounced with the sound of au as in aura, or as o in or and oar. Kanora is above and pronounced after a consonant. The Romanized spelling of Kanora is phonetic and may be also spelled Kanaura or Knoura, however spelling may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani or Punjabi.

Romanized Phonetic Spelling and Pronunciation Guide

  • Vowel Pronunciation: Kanora has a short vowel sound with a single beat symbolized by au. Kanora is pronounced like the au in aura, laurel and tyrannosaurus, and is similar to the oa of oar. Kanora is written above and pronounced after the consonant.
  • Simple Spelling: Kanora is the most phonetically simple spelling, however spelling may differ slightly in original Gurmukhi texts, as well as Romanized and English translations of Gurbani or Punjabi.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spellings: The most phonetically correct long form transliterated spelling of Kanora is Kanaurhaa.The Romanized transliteration may also be spelled Kanaura, or Kanoura. The first syllable K represents Gurmukhi consonant, and is pronounced holding back air, the vowel has the short a sound of Mukta.The second syllable au ( Kanora) is followed by the aspirated . The third syllable vowel has the long double aa sound of Kannaa.
  • Incorrect Spelling: The phonetic spellings Kunora, Kenora, and Kenoura are all incorrect.

Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Kanora is written above and pronounced after its vowel holder Airraa.

11
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Gurmukhi Nasalization Indicator - Bindi With Illustrated Pronunciation

Bindi With Vowels (Laga Matra)
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Bindi With Vowels (Laga Matra). Photo © [S Khalsa]

Bindi indicates nasalization of vowel sounds.

Gurmukhi Nasalization Indicator - Bindi

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Bindi is a mark which appears above certain Gurmukhi vowels to indicate nasalization.

Bindi is written as a dot drawn above the connecting horizontal line and slightly to the right of the consonant and vowel it influences.

Nasalization Pronunciation Guide

Bindi indicates nasalization of a vowel, and may appear at the begining of a word with a vowel holder, within a word, or at the end of a word which is not followed by a consonant.

  • Correct Nasalization Pronunciation: The nasal Bindi sounds like the n of the contraction n't and is usually represented by the letter n when phonetically spelling Gurmukhi words.
  • Incorrect Nasalization Pronunciation: Bindi is often pronounced incorrectly to sound like ng, as ing, or ong. 

Example: The Gurmukhi word Ik Onkar

  • Correct Transliteration: Phonetic spelling and pronunciation Ik O-an-kaar
  • Incorrect Transliteration: Phonetic spelling and pronunciation Ik Ong-kar 

Bindi is used in conjunction with the vowels:

  • Kanna - to produce the long nasal vowel sound aan.
  • Bihari - to produce the long nasal vowel sound een.
  • Lavan - to produce the long nasal vowel aen.
  • Dulavan to produce the short nasal vowel sound ain (to sound like a in can't)
  • Hora - to produce the long nasal vowel sound oan.
  • Kanora - to produce the short nasal vowel sound aun.

Transliteration Spelling Guide

  • Spelling: Bindi is the short form simple spelling.
  • Alternate Phonetic Spelling: The most phonetically correct transliterated spelling is Bindee. The first syllable begins with the vowel Sihari indicating the sound of a short i with a single beat that is pronounced after the Gurmukhi consonant Babba represented by . Bindi is a nasal word indicated by Tipi which appears over, and slighty to the right of the consonant. The second syllable begins with d repersenting Gurmukhi consonant followed by Biharee represented by double ee.

Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Bindi is illustrated here with vowels that it influences and their respective vowel holders.

12
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Gurmukhi Nasalization Indicator - Tipi With Illustrated Pronunciation

Gurmukhi Nasalization Indicatior Tipi
Laga Matra Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi Nasalization Indicatior Tipi. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Tipi indicates nasalization of vowel sounds.

Gurmukhi Nasalization Indicator - Tipi

The vowels of Gurmukhi are identical to the Punjabi alphabet and are known as laga matra. Tipi is a mark which appears above certain Gurmukhi vowels in conjucntions with consonants to indicate nasalization of the vowel.

Tipi is written as a an exagerated arc drawn above the connecting horizontal line and slightly to the right of the consonant and vowel it influences.

Nasalization Pronunciation Guide

Tipi indicates nasalization of a vowel. Tipi may appear at the begining of a word with a vowel holder, and within, or at the end of a word, having a vowel in conjunction with a consonant.

  • Nasalization Pronunciation: Tipi may be represented by either the letter n or m in the phonetic spelling of Gurmukhi words. The nasal Tipi sounds like n in inch, or m in hmm.Tipi is never used to indicate nasalization of a vowel in words ending with a vowel.
  • Example: The Gurmukhi word Amrit featuring Tipi may be phonetcally transliterated to be spelled out as Anmrit.

Tipi is used in conjunction with the vowels:

  • Mukta - to produce the short nasal vowel sound an, or am.
  • Sihari - to produce the short nasal vowel sound in, or im.
  • Aunkar - to produce the long nasal vowel un, or um.
  • Dulankar to produce the long nasal vowel sound oon, or oom.

Transliteration Spelling Guide

Spellings: Tipi is the short form simple spelling and may also be transliterated to be spelled Tipee.

Alternate Phonetic Spelling: The most phonetcially correct long form transliteration spelling is Tippee. The first syllable begins with the vowel Sihari indicating the sound of a short i with a single beat that is pronounced after the Gurmukhi consonant Tanka represnted by T (or tt). The second syllable begins with Adhak a u shaped mark above the connectiong horizontal line indicating that the Gurmukhi consonant is precedes is to be doubled. Second syllable consonant Pappa represented by is pronounced as a double pp (as in happy), and followed by Biharee represented by double ee.

Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Guide

In the written Gurmukhi texts, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Tipi is illustrated here with vowels it influences and their respective vowel holders.

13
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Oorraa - Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Illustrated With Laga Matra

Oorraa With Lagar Matra gurmukhi Vowels
Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Oorraa With Laga Matra Gurmukhi Vowels. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Oorraa is a Gurmukhi vowel holder.

The Gurmukhi vowel holder Oorraa is grouped with the Gurmukhi alphabet consonants, or 35 Akhar which are identical to those of the Punjabi alphabet.

In the written Gurmukhi text, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Oorraa is one of three place holders of Gurmukhi vowels, or laga matra. Oorraa is illustrated here with its respective laga matra vowels and phonetic equivalents:

  • Aunkar - u as in put.
  • Dulankar - oo as in boot.
  • Hora - o as in boat. The symbol variation for hora occurs only in conjunction with Oorraa.
  • Hora in combination with Aunkar - ou, long vowel sound o as in boat, followed by short vowel sound u as in put.
14
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Airraa - Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Illustrated With Laga Matra

Airraa With Laga Matra Gurmukhi Vowels
Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Airraa With Laga Matra Gurmukhi Vowels. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Airraa is a Gurmukhi vowel holder.

The Gurmukhi vowel holder Airraa is grouped with the Gurmukhi alphabet consonants, or 35 Akhar which are identical to those of the Punjabi alphabet. In the written Gurmukhi text, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Airraa is one of three place holders of Gurmukhi vowels, or laga matra. Airraa is illustrated here with its respective laga matra vowel and phonetic equivalents:

  • Mukta - a as in about.
  • Kanna - a as in awe.
  • Dulavan - ai pronounced as a in cat.
  • Kanora - au as in aura.
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Eeree - Gurmukhi Vowel Holder Illustrated With Laga Matra

Eerree With Laga Matra Gurmukhi Vowels
Transliteration and Phonetic Spelling Eerree With Laga Matra Gurmukhi Vowels. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Eeree is a Gurmukhi vowel holder.

The Gurmukhi vowel holder Eeree is grouped with the Gurmukhi alphabet consonants, or 35 Akhar which are identical to those of the Punjabi alphabet. In the written Gurmukhi text, or Punjabi language, vowels which are not preceded by a consonant are preceded instead by a vowel holder. Eeree is one of three place holders of Gurmukhi vowels, or laga matra. Eeree is illustrated here with its respective laga matra and phonetic equivalents:

  • Sihari - i as in it.
  • Bihari - ee as in see.
  • Lavan - ae such as faerie or a and e in ate.
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Gurmukhi Vowel Combinations Illustrated With Laga Matra

Gurmukhi Vowel Combinations
Transliteration Phonetic Spelling Gurmukhi Vowel Combinations. Photo © [S Khalsa]

Illustration of possible Gurmukhi vowel combinations.

Gurmukhi vowels are identical to those of the Punjabi alphabet. Each of the ten Gurmukhi vowels, or laga matra, has its own unique phonetic sound. Vowel holders are used whenever two vowels are combined to produce a new sound. The laga matra are pronounced in the order written or in certain cases where vowels are combined with only one vowel holder, the vowel above is pronounced first, followed by the vowel below.

An example of a vowel combination is Kanna followed by Bihari, or aa-ee which together produce the long vowel sound of i as in like.

The illustration here depicts several of the possible common, and rare, vowel combinations which appear in Sikh scripture (in order shown):

  • a-ee
  • aa-ee
  • a-i
  • aa-iaa
  • aa-u
  • aa-oo
  • ai-aa
  • ai-ee
  • ai-i
  • ai-o
  • ae-eh
  • ae-ee
  • u-a-ee
  • u
  • o-u
  • oo-aa
  • oo-i