Harun al-Rashid

Harun al-Rashid
Depiction of Harun al-Rashid receiving a delegation from Charlemagne in Baghdad, by Julius Köckert, 1864. Public domain; courtesy of Wikimedia

Harun Al-Rashid Was Also Known As

Haroun ar-Rashid, Harun al-Raschid or Haroon al Rasheed

Harun Al-Rashid Was Known For

Creating a fabulous court at Baghdad that would be immortalized in The Thousand and One Nights. Harun al-Rashid was the fifth Abbasid caliph.

Occupations

Caliph

Places of Residence and Influence

Asia: Arabia

Important Dates

Became caliph: Sept. 14, 786

Died: March 24, 809

About Harun al-Rashid

Born to the caliph al-Mahdi and the former slave-girl al-Khayzuran, Harun was raised at court and received the bulk of his education from Yahya the Barmakid, who was a loyal supporter of Harun's mother.

Before he was out of his teens, Harun was made the nominal leader of several expeditions against the Eastern Roman Empire; his success (or, more accurately, the success of his generals) resulted in his earning the title "al-Rashid," which means "the one following the right path" or "upright" or "just." He was also appointed governor of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Egypt, Syria and Tunisia, which Yahya administered for him, and named second in line to the throne (after his older brother, al-Hadi).

Al-Mahdi died in 785 and al-Hadi died mysteriously in 786 (it was rumored that al-Khayzuran arranged his death), and Harun became caliph in September of that year. He appointed as his vizier Yahya, who installed a cadre of Barmakids as administrators. Al-Khayzuran had considerable influence over her son until her death in 803, and the Barmakids effectively ran the empire for Harun. Regional dynasties were given semi-autonomous status in return for considerable annual payments, which enriched Harun financially but weakened the power of the caliphs.

He also divided his empire between his sons al-Amin and al-Ma'mun, who would go to war after Harun's death.

Harun was a great patron of art and learning, and is best known for the unsurpassed splendor of his court and lifestyle. Some of the stories, perhaps the earliest, of The Thousand and One Nights were inspired by the glittering Baghdad court, and King Shahryar (whose wife, Scheherazade, tells the tales) may have been based on Harun himself.

More Harun al-Rashid Resources

Iraq: Historical Setting

Encyclopedia article on Abbasids

Harun al-Rashid on the Web

Harun al-Rashid
Informative collection of data at NNDB.

Harun al-Rashid (786-809)
Brief overview of Harun's life at the Jewish Virtual Library.

Harun ar-Rashid
Concise bio at Infoplease.

Harun al-Rashid in Print

The links below will take you to a site where you can compare prices at booksellers across the web. More in-depth info about the book may be found by clicking on to the book's page at one of the online merchants.

Harun Al-Rashid and the World of a Thousand and One Nights
by Andre Clot

Reinterpreting Islamic Historiography: Harun al-Rashid and the Narrative of the Abbasid Caliphate
(Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization)
by Tayeb El-Hibri

Format
mla apa chicago
Your Citation
Snell, Melissa. "Harun al-Rashid." ThoughtCo, May. 30, 2017, thoughtco.com/harun-al-rashid-1788986. Snell, Melissa. (2017, May 30). Harun al-Rashid. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/harun-al-rashid-1788986 Snell, Melissa. "Harun al-Rashid." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/harun-al-rashid-1788986 (accessed November 24, 2017).