The History of Automobile Names

"The new mechanical wagon with the awful name automobile has come to stay..." New York Times (1897 article)

The New York Times' mention of the name “automobile” was the first public use of the term by the media and eventually helped to popularize the name for motor vehicles. Credit for the name, however, actually goes to a 14th century Italian painter and engineer named Martini. While he never built an automobile, he did draw up plans for a man-powered carriage with four wheels.

He came up with the name automobile by combining the Greek word "auto" -- meaning self -- and the Latin word, "mobils," which means moving. Put them together and you've got a self-moving vehicle that doesn't need horses to pull it. 

Other Names for Motor Vehicles Over the Years

Of course, the other popular name for an automobile is the car, derived from Celtic word "carrus," which means cart or wagon. There were other early media references to motor vehicles and these included names such as autobaine, autokenetic, autometon, automotor horse, buggyaut, diamote, horseless carriage, mocole, motor carriage, motorig, motor-vique and the oleo locomotive.

So what other names for motor vehicles have famous automobile inventors used? One good way to find out is to look at the names that were used in their patent applications. Here's a brief rundown of various car names throughout history:

  • American inventor, engineer and businessman Oliver Evans applied for a U.S. patent in Philadelphia in 1792 for an invention he called "oruktor amphiboles," which translates to “amphibious digger.” His vehicle was designed to be a steam-powered car that rolled out of his shop in 1804. Initially created for the Philadelphia Board of Health for the purpose of dredging and cleaning docks, the vehicle was capable of moving on both water and land.
  • George Selden, a patent attorney from Rochester, New York, received a patent for something he called a "road machine" in 1879. Due to existing laws at the time, the patent was pre-dated to 1877. Selden expanded its claims over the years, and by 1895, he had a patent for a three-cylinder motor vehicle. While he enever actually produced a car, the patent allowed him to collect royalties from all American car manufacturers. Companies paid Selden's holding company, the Association of Licensed Automotive Manufacturers, for the patent licensing rights to build cars.
  • The fact that George Selden hadn’t actually followed through with his idea made the patent questionable to some manufacturers. Henry Ford, industrialist and founder of the Ford Motor Company, was one of those who took issue with Seldon’s licensing fees and refused to pay it. Selden took Ford to court in 1904, but the judge ordered an automobile built according to the George Selden patent. It was an utter failure and Selden’s patent was overturned in 1911. Selden could no longer collect royalties and car manufacturers were free to build their vehicles at lower cost without this added expense. 
  • The Duryea brothers patented their "motor wagon" in 1895. They were bicycle makers who became fascinated with the concept of automobiles and gasoline engines. 
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Bellis, Mary. "The History of Automobile Names." ThoughtCo, Sep. 30, 2016, thoughtco.com/history-of-automobile-names-4097225. Bellis, Mary. (2016, September 30). The History of Automobile Names. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/history-of-automobile-names-4097225 Bellis, Mary. "The History of Automobile Names." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/history-of-automobile-names-4097225 (accessed November 21, 2017).