History of Megan's Law

Law Named After Megan Kanka of New Jersey

Megan Kanka
Megan Kanka. Family Photo

Megan's Law is a federal law passed in 1996 that authorizes local law enforcement agencies to notify the public about convicted sex offenders living, working or visiting their communities.

Megan's Law was inspired by the case of seven-year-old Megan Kanka, a New Jersey girl who was raped and killed by a known child molester who moved across the street from the family. The Kanka family fought to have local communities warned about sex offenders in the area.

The New Jersey legislature passed Megan's Law in 1994.

In 1996, the U.S. Congress passed Megan's Law as an amendment to the Jacob Wetterling Crimes Against Children's Act. It required every state have a sex offender registry and a notification system for the public when a sex offender is released into their community. It also required that repeat sex offenders receive a sentence of life in prison.

Different states have different procedures for making the required disclosures. Generally, the information that is included within the notification is the offender's name, picture, address, incarceration date, and offense of conviction.

The information is most often displayed on free public websites, but can be distributed through newspapers, distributed in pamphlets, or through various other means.

The federal law was not the first on the books that addressed the issue of registering convicted sex offenders.

As early as 1947, California had laws that required sex offenders to be registered. Since the passage of the federal law in May of 1996, all states have passed some form of Megan's Law.

History - Before Megan's Law

Before Megan's Law being passed, the Jacob Wetterling Act of 1994 required that each state must maintain and develop a registry of sexual offenders and other offenses related to crimes against children.

However, the registry information was only made available to law enforcement and was not open to public viewing unless information about an individual became a matter of public safety.

The actual effectiveness of the law as a tool to protect the public was challenged by Richard and Maureen Kanka of Hamilton Township, Mercer County, New Jersey after their 7-year-old daughter, Megan Kanka, was abducted, raped and murdered. He was sentenced to death, but on December 17, 2007, the death penalty was abolished by the New Jersey Legislature and Timmendequas' sentence was commuted to life in prison without the possibility of parole.

Repeat sex offender, Jessee Timmendequas had been convicted twice for sex crimes against children when he moved into a home across the street from Megan. On July 27, 1994, he lured Megan into his house where he raped and murdered her, then left her body in a nearby park.  The following day he confessed to the crime and led police to Megan's body.

The Kankas said that had they known that their neighbor, Jessee Timmendequas was a convicted sex offender, Megan would be alive today. The Kankas fought to change the law, wanting to make it mandatory that states notify the residents of a community when sex offenders are living in the community or move to the community.

Paul Kramer, a Republican Party politician who served four terms in the New Jersey General Assembly, sponsored the package of seven bills known as Megan's Law in New Jersey General Assembly in 1994.

The bill was enacted in New Jersey 89 days after Megan was kidnapped, raped and murdered.

Criticism of Megan's Law

Opponents of Megan's Law feel that it invites vigilante violence and reference cases like William Elliot who was shot and killed in his home by vigilante Stephen Marshall. Marshall located Elliot's personal information on the Maine Sex Offender Registry website.

William Elliot was required to register as a sex offender at the age of 20 after being convicted of having sex with his girlfriend who was just days away from turning 16 years old.

Reformist organizations have criticized the law because of the negative collateral effects on the family members of registered sex offender.

It also finds it unfair because it means that sex offenders are subjected to indefinite punishments.