Terms of Enrichment: How French Has Influenced English

Their Intertwined History, and Shared Words and Expressions

French, British, and American Flags
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The English language has been shaped by a number of other languages over the centuries, and many English speakers know that Latin and Germanic languages were two of the most important. What many people don't realize is how much the French language has influenced English.

History

Without going into too much detail, here is a little background about other languages that have also shaped English. The language grew out of the dialects of three German tribes (Angles, Jutes, and Saxons) who settled in Britain around 450 A.D.

This group of dialects forms what we refer to as Anglo-Saxon, which gradually developed into Old English. The Germanic base was influenced in varying degrees by Celtic, Latin, and Old Norse.

Bill Bryson, a noted American linguist of the English language, calls the Norman conquest of 1066 the "final cataclysm [that] awaited the English language." When William the Conqueror became king of England, French took over as the language of the courts, administration, and literature—and stayed there for 300 years. 

Anglo-Norman

Some say this eclipse of the English vernacular was "probably the most regrettable effect of the conquest. Superseded in official documents and other records by Latin and then increasingly in all areas by Anglo-Norman, written English hardly reappeared until the 13th century," according to britannica.com.

English was demoted to humble everyday uses, and it became the language of peasants and the uneducated.

These two languages existed side by side in England with no noticeable difficulties. In fact, since English was essentially ignored by grammarians during this time, it evolved independently, becoming a simpler language grammatically.

After 80 years or so of coexisting with French, Old English segued into Middle English, which was the vernacular spoken and written in England from about 1100 to about 1500.

This is when Early Modern English, the language of Shakespeare, emerged. This evolutionary version of English is nearly identical to the English we know today.

Vocabulary

During the Norman occupation, about 10,000 French words were incorporated into English, about three-fourths of which are still in use today. This French vocabulary is found in every domain, from government and law to art and literature. About one-third of all English words are derived directly or indirectly from French, and it's estimated that English speakers who have never studied French already know 15,000 French words. There are more than 1,700 true cognates, words that are identical in the two languages.

Pronunciation

English Pronunciation owes a lot to French as well. Whereas Old English had the unvoiced fricative sounds [f], [s], [θ] (as in thin), and [∫] (shin), French influence helped to distinguish their voiced counterparts [v], [z], [ð] (the), and [ʒ] (mirage), and also contributed the diphthong [ɔy] (boy).

Grammar

Another rare but interesting remnant of French influence is in the word order of expressions like secretary general and surgeon general, where English has retained the noun + adjective word order typical in French, rather than the usual adjective + noun sequence used in English.

Additional Reading

  1. The Mother Tongue: English & How It Got That Way, by Bill Bryson
  2. French is Not a "Foreign" LanguageAmerican Association of Teachers of French.
  3. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, ed. Houghton Mifflin Company 
  4. French Inside Out: The French Language Past and Present, by Henriette Walter
  5. Honni soit qui mal y pense : L'incroyable histoire d'amour entre le français et l'anglais, by Henriette Walter
  6. The Languages of the World, by Kenneth Katzner 
  7. Made in America: An Informal History of the English Language in the United States, by Bill Bryson (compare prices)

French Words and Expressions in the English Language

These are some of the thousands of French words and expressions the English language has adopted. Some of them have been so completely absorbed into English the etymology is not evident Other words and expressions have retained their written "Frenchness," a certain je ne sais quoi that does not extend to pronunciation, which has assumed English inflections.

The following is a list of words and expressions of French origin that are commonly used in English. Each term is followed by the literal English translation in quotation marks and an explanation. 

adieu   "until God"
   Used like "farewell": When you don't expect to see the person again until God (meaning when you die and go to Heaven)

agent provocateur   "provocative agent"
   A person who attempts to provoke suspected individuals or groups into committing unlawful acts

aide-de-camp   "camp assistant"
   A military officer who serves as a personal assistant to a higher-ranking officer

aide-mémoire   "memory aid"

   1. Position paper
   2. Something that acts as an aid to memory, such as crib notes or mnemonic devices

à la carte   "on the menu*"
   French restaurants usually offer a menu with choices for each of the several courses at a fixed price. If you want something else (a side order), you order from the carte.

Note that menu is a false cognate in French and English.

à la française   "in the French manner"
   Describes anything done the French way

à la minute   "to the minute"
   This term is used in restaurant kitchens for dishes that are cooked to order, rather than made ahead of time

à la mode   "in fashion, style"
   In English, this means "with ice cream," an apparent reference to a time when ice cream on pie was the fashionable way to eat it.

allée   "alley, avenue"
   A path or walkway lined with trees

amour-propre   "self love"
   Self-respect

apéritif   "cocktail"
   From Latin, "to open"

après-ski   "after skiing"
   The French term actually refers to snow boots, but the literal translation of the term is what is meant in English, as in "après-ski" social events.

à propos (de)   "on the subject of"
   In French, à propos must be followed by the preposition de. In English, there are four ways to use apropos (not that in English, we've done away with the accent and the space):

  1.  Adjective: appropriate, to the point. "That's true, but it's not apropos."
  2.  Adverb: at an appropriate time, opportunely. "Fortunately, he arrived apropos."
  3.  Adverb/Interjection: by the way, incidentally. "Apropos, what happened yesterday?"
  4.  Preposition (may or may not be followed by "of"): with regard to, speaking of. "Apropos our meeting, I'll be late.""He told a funny story apropos of the new president."

art déco   "decorative art"
   Short for art décoratif. A movement in art of the 1920s and 1930s characterized by bold outlines and geometric and zigzag forms

art nouveau   "new art"
   A movement in art, characterized by flowers, leaves, and flowing lines

attaché   "attached"
   A person assigned to a diplomatic post

au contraire   "on the contrary"
   Usually used playfully in English.

au fait   "conversant, informed"
   "Au fait" is used in British English to mean "familiar" or "conversant": She's not really au fait with my ideas, but it has other meanings in French.

au gratin   "with gratings"
   In French, au gratin refers to anything that is grated and put on top of a dish, like breadcrumbs or cheese. In English, au gratin means "with cheese."

au jus   "in the juice"
   Served with the meat's natural juices.

au naturel   "in reality, unseasoned"
   In this case naturel is a semi-false cognate. In French, au naturel can mean either "in reality" or the literal meaning of "unseasoned" (in cooking). In English, we picked up the latter, less common usage and use it figuratively, to mean natural, untouched, pure, real, naked.

au pair   "at par"
   A person who works for a family (cleaning and/or teaching the children) in exchange for room and board

aux trois crayons   "with three crayons"
   Drawing technique using three colors of chalk

avant-garde   "before guard"
   Innovative, especially in the arts, in the sense of before everyone else

avoirdupois   "goods of weight"
   Originally spelled averdepois

bas-relief   "low relief/design"
   Sculpture that is only slightly more prominent than its background.

BCBG   "good style, good sort"
   Preppy or posh, short for bon chic, bon genre.

belle époque   "beautiful era"
   The golden age of art and culture in the early 20th century

bête noire   "black beast"
   Similar to a pet peeve: something that is particularly distasteful or difficult and to be avoided.

billet-doux   "sweet note"
   Love letter

blond, blonde   "fair-haired"
   This is the only adjective in English that agrees in gender with the person it modifies: Blond is for a man and blonde for a woman. Note that these can also be nouns.

bon appétit   "good appetite"
   The closest English equivalent is "Enjoy your meal."

bon mot, bons mots   "good word(s)"
   Clever remark, witticism

bon ton   "good tone"
   Sophistication, etiquette, high society

bon vivant   "good 'liver'"
   Someone who lives well, who knows how to enjoy life.

bon voyage   "good trip"
   In English, it would be, "Have a good trip," but Bon voyage is considered more elegant.

bric-a-brac
   The correct French spelling is bric-à-brac. Note that bric and brac don't actually mean anything in French; they are onomatopoetic.

brunette   "small, dark-haired female"
   The French word brun, dark-haired, is what English really means by "brunette." The suffix -ette indicates that the subject is small and female.

café au lait   "coffee with milk"
   Same thing as the Spanish term café con leche

carte blanche   "blank card"
   Free hand, ability to do whatever you want/need

cause célèbre   "famous cause"
   A famous, controversial issue, trial, or case

cerise   "cherry"
   The French word for the fruit gives us the English word for the color.

c'est la vie   "that's life"
   Same meaning and usage in both languages

chacun à son goût   "each one to his own taste"
   This is the slightly twisted English version of the French expression à chacun son goût.

chaise longue   "long chair"
   In English, this is often mistakenly written as "chaise lounge," which actually makes perfect sense.

chargé d'affaires   "charged with business"
   A substitute or replacement diplomat

chef d'œuvre   "chief work"
   Masterpiece

cherchez la femme   "look for the woman"
   Same problem as always

cheval-de-frise   "Frisian horse"
   Barbed wire, spikes, or broken glass attached to wood or masonry and used to block access

cheval glace   "horse mirror"
   A long mirror set into a moveable frame

chic   "stylish"
   Chic sounds more chic than "stylish."

cinéma vérité   "cinema truth"
   Unbiased, realistic documentary filmmaking

comme il faut   "as it must"
   The proper way, as it should be

cordon bleu   "blue ribbon"
   Master chef

cordon sanitaire   "sanitary line"
   Quarantine, buffer zone for political or medical reasons.

coup de foudre   "bolt of lightning"
   Love at first sight

coup de grâce   "mercy blow"
   Deathblow, final blow, decisive stroke

coup de main   "stroke of hand"
   Somehow the English meaning (surprise attack) got completely separated from the French meaning, which is assistance, helping hand.

coup de maître   "master stroke"
   A stroke of genius

coup de théâtre   "stroke of the theater"
   Sudden, unexpected turn of events in a play

coup d'etat   "state blow"
   Overthrow of the government. Note that the last word is capitalized and accented in French: coup d'État.

coup d'œil   "stroke of the eye"
   A glance

crème brûlée   "burnt cream"
   Baked custard with carmelized crust

crème caramel   "caramel cream"
  Custard lined with caramel like a flan

crème de cacao   "cream of cacao"
   Chocolate-flavored liqueur

crème de la crème   "cream of the cream"
   Synonymous with the English expression "cream of the crop" - refers to the best of the best.

crème de menthe   "cream of mint"
   Mint-flavored liqueur

crème fraîche   "fresh cream"
   This is a funny term.

Despite its meaning, crème fraîche is in fact slightly fermented, thickened cream.

crêpe de Chine   "Chinese crepe"
   Type of silk

cri de cœur   "cry of heart"
   The correct way to say "heartfelt cry" in French is cri du cœur (literally, "cry of the heart")

crime passionnel   "passionate crime"
   Crime of passion

critique   "critical, judgment"
   Critique is an adjective and noun in French, but a noun and verb in English; it refers to a critical review of something or the act of performing such a review.

cuisine   "kitchen, food style"
   In English, cuisine refers only to a particular type of food/cooking, such as French cuisine, Southern cuisine, etc.

cul-de-sac   "bottom (butt) of the bag"
   Dead-end street

debutante   "beginner"
   In French, débutante is the feminine form of débutant, beginner (noun) or beginning (adj). In both languages, it also refers to a young girl making her formal début into society. Interestingly, this usage is not original in French; it was adopted back from English.

décolletage, décolleté   "low neckline, lowered neckline"
   The first is a noun, the second an adjective, but both refer to low necklines on women's clothing.

dégustation   "tasting"
   The French word simply refers to the act of tasting, while in English "degustation" is used for a tasting event or party, as in wine or cheese tasting.

déjà vu   "already seen"
   This is a grammatical structure in French, as in Je l'ai déjà vu > I've already seen it. In English, déjà vu refers to the phenomenon of feeling like you've already seen or done something when you're sure that you haven't.

demimonde   "half world"
   In French, it's hyphenated: demi-monde. In English, there are two meanings:
   1. A marginal or disrespectful group
   2. Prostitutes and/or kept women

demitasse   "half cup"
   In French, it's hyphenated: demi-tasse. Refers to a small cup of espresso or other strong coffee.

démodé   "out of fashion"
   Same meaning in both languages: outmoded, out of fashion

de rigueur   "of rigueur"
   Socially or culturally obligatory

dernier cri   "last cry"
   The newest fashion or trend

de trop   "of too much"
   Excessive, superfluous

Dieu et mon droit   "God and my right"
   Motto of the British monarch

divorcé, divorcée   "divorced man, divorced woman"
   In English, the feminine, divorcée, is far more common, and is often written without the accent: divorcee

double entendre   "double hearing"
   A word play or pun.

For example, you're looking at a field of sheep and you say "How are you (ewe)?"

droit du seigneur   "right of the lord of the manor"
   The feudal lord's right to deflower his vassal's bride

du jour   "of the day"
   "Soup du jour" is nothing more than an elegant-sounding version of "soup of the day."

eau de cologne   "water from Cologne"
   This is often cut down to simply "cologne" in English. Cologne is the French and English name for the German city Köln.

eau de toilette   "toilet water"
   Toilet here does not refer to a commode. See "toilette" in this list. Eau de toilette is a very weak perfume.

embarras de richesse, richesses   "embarrassement of wealth/richness"
   Such an overwhelming amount of good fortune that it's embarrassing or confusing

emigré   "expatriate, migrant"
   In English, this tends to indicate exile for political reasons

en banc   "on the bench"
   Legal term: indicates that the entire membership of a court is in session.

en bloc   "in a block"
   In a group, all together

en brochette   "on (a) skewer"
   Also known by the Turkish name: shish kebab

encore   "again"
   A simple adverb in French, "encore" in English refers to an additional performance, usually requested with audience applause.

enfant terrible   "terrible child"
   Refers to a troublesome or embarrassing person within a group (of artists, thinkers, and the like).

en garde   "on guard"
   Warning that one should be on his/her guard, ready for an attack (originally in fencing).

en masse   "in mass"
   In a group, all together

en passant   "in passing"
   in passing, by the way; (chess) the capturing of a pawn after a specific move

en prise   "in grasp"
   (chess) exposed to capture

en rapport   "in agreement"
   agreeable, harmonious

en route   "on route"
   On the way

en suite   "in sequence"
   Part of a set, together

entente cordiale   "cordial agreement"
   Friendly agreements between countries, especially those signed in 1904 between France and the UK

entrez vous   "come in"
   English speakers often say this, but it's wrong. The correct way to say "come in" in French is simply entrez.

esprit de corps   "group spirit"
   Similar to team spirit or morale

esprit d'escalier   "stairway wit"
   Thinking of an answer or comeback too late

fait accompli   "done deed"
   "Fait accompli" is probably a bit more fatalistic than merely "done deed."

faux   "false, fake"
  As in faux jewels.

faux pas   "false step, trip"
   Something that should not be done, a foolish mistake. 

femme fatale   "deadly woman"
   An alluring, mysterious woman who seduces men into compromising situations

fiancé, fiancée   "engaged person, betrothed"
   Note that fiancé refers to a man and fiancée to a woman.

film noir   "black movie"
   Black is a literal reference to the stark black-and-white cinematography style, though films noirs tend to be dark figuratively as well.

fin de siècle   "end of the century"
   Refers to the end of the 19th century

fleur-de-lis, fleur-de-lys   "flower of lily"
   A type of iris or an emblem in the shape of an iris with three petals.

fleur de sel   "flower of salt"
   Very fine and expensive salt

foie gras   "fat liver"
   The liver of a force-fed goose, considered a delicacy

folie à deux   "craziness for two"
   Mental disorder that occurs simultaneously in two people with a close relationship or association.

force majeure   "great force"
   An unexpected or uncontrollable event, like a tornado or war, that prevents a contract from being fulfilled.

gamine   "playful, little girl"
   Refers to an impish or playful girl/woman.

garçon   "boy"
   Once upon a time, it was acceptable to call a French waiter garçon, but those days are long gone.

gauche   "left, awkward"
   Tactless, lacking social grace

genre   "type"
   Used mostly in art and film. as in, "I really like this genre."

giclée   "squirt, spray"
   In French, giclée is a general term for a small amount of liquid; in English, it refers to a particular type of inkjet print using a fine spray, and the accent is usually dropped: giclee

grand mal   "great illness"
   Severe epilepsy. Also see petit mal

haute couture   "high sewing"
   High-class, fancy and expensive clothing 

haute cuisine   "high cuisine"
   High-class, fancy and expensive cooking or food

honi soit qui mal y pense
   Shame on anyone who thinks evil of it

hors de combat   "out of combat"
   Out of action

hors d'œuvre   "outside of work"
   An appetizer. Œuvre here refers to the main work (course), so hors d'œuvre simply means something besides the main course.

idée fixe   "set idea"
   Fixation, obsession

je ne sais quoi   "I don't know what"
   Used to indicate a "certain something," as in "I really like Ann. She has a certain je ne sais quoi that I find very appealing."

joie de vivre   "joy of living"
   The quality in people who live life to the fullest

laissez-faire   "let it be"
   A policy of non-interference. Note the expression in French is laisser-faire.

ma foi   "my faith"
   Indeed

maître d', maître d'hôtel   "master of, master of hotel"
   The former is more common in English, which is strange since it is incomplete. Literally, it is: "The 'master of' will show you to your table."

mal de mer   "sickness of sea"
   Seasickness

mardi gras   "fat Tuesday"
   Celebration before Lent

matinée   "morning"
   In English, indicates the day's first showing of a movie or play. Can also refer to a midday romp with one's lover.

ménage à trois   "household of three"
   Three people in a relationship together; a threesome

mise en abyme   "putting into (an) abyss"
   An image repeated within its own image, as with two facing mirrors.

mot juste   "right word"
   Exactly the right word or expression.

née   "born"
   Used in genealogy to refer to a woman's maiden name: Anne Miller née (or nee) Smith.

noblesse oblige   "obligated nobility"
   The idea that those who are noble are obliged to act noble.

nom de guerre   "war name"
   Pseudonym

nom de plume   "pen name"
   This French phrase was coined by English speakers in imitation of nom de guerre.

nouveau riche   "new rich"
   Disparaging term for someone who has recently come into money.

nouvelle cuisine   "new cuisine"
   Cooking style developed in the 1960's and 70's that emphasized lightness and freshness.

objet d'art   "art object"
   Note that the French word objet does not have a c. It is never "object d'art."

oh là là   "oh dear"
   Usually misspelled and mispronounced "ooh la la" in English.

oh ma foi   "oh my faith"
   Indeed, certainly, I agree

papier mâché   "mashed paper"
   Used for art

par excellence   "by excellence"
   Quintessential, preeminent, the best of the best

pas de deux   "step of two"
   Dance with two people

passé   "past"
   Old-fashioned, out-of-date, past its prime

passe-partout   "pass everywhere"
   1. Master key
   2. (Art) mat, paper, or tape used to frame a picture

peau de soie   "skin of silk"
   Soft, silky fabric with a dull finish

petit   "small"
   (law) lesser, minor

petite   "small, short"
   It may sound chic, but petite is simply the feminine French adjective meaning "short" or "small."

petit four   "little oven"
   Small dessert, especially cake

petit mal   "small illness"
   Relatively mild epilepsy. Also see grand mal

petit point   "little stitch"
   Small stitch used in needlepoint.

pièce de résistance   "piece of stamina"
   In French, this originally referred to the main course, or the test of your stomach's stamina. In both languages, it now refers to an outstanding accomplishment or the final part of something, as a project, a meal, or the like.

pied-à-terre   "foot on ground"
   A temporary or secondary place of residence.

pince-nez   "pinch-nose"
   Eyeglasses clipped to the nose

Plus ça change   "More it changes"
   The more things change (the more they stay the same)

porte cochère   "coach gate"
   Covered gate through which cars drive and then stop temporarily to allow passengers to enter a building without getting rained upon.

potpourri   "rotten pot"
   A scented mixture of dried flowers and spices; a miscellaneous group or collection

prêt-à-porter   "ready to wear"
   Originally referred to clothing, now sometimes used for food.

prix fixe   "fixed price"
   Two or more courses at a set price, with or without options for each course.

Though the term is French, in France, a "prix fixe menu" is simply called le menu.

protégé   "protected"
   Someone whose training is sponsored by an influential person.

raison d'être   "reason for being"
   Purpose, justification for existing

rendez-vous   "go to"
   In French, this refers to a date or an appointment (literally, it is the verb se rendre [to go] in the imperative); in English we can use it as a noun or a verb (let's rendez-vous at 8 p.m.).

repartee   "quick, accurate response"
   The French repartie gives us the English "repartee," with the same meaning of a swift, witty, and "right on" retort.

risqué   "risked"
   Suggestive, overly provocative

roche moutonnée   "rolled rock"
   Mound of bedrock smoothed and rounded by erosion. Mouton by itself means "sheep."

roman à clés   "novel with keys"
   Novel with real people appearing as fictional characters

roman-fleuve   "novel river"
   A long, multivolume novel that presents the history of several generations of a family or community. In both French and English, saga tends to be used more.

rouge   "red"
   The English refers to a reddish cosmetic or metal/glass-polishing powder and can be a noun or a verb.

RSVP   "respond please"
   This abbreviation stands for Répondez, s'il vous plaît, which means that "Please RSVP" is redundant.

sang-froid   "cold blood"
   The ability to maintain one's composure.

sans   "without"
   Used mainly in academia, although it's also seen in the font style "sans serif," which means "without decorative flourishes."

savoir-faire   "knowing how to do"
   Synonymous with tact or social grace.

savoir-vivre   "to know how to live"
   Living with sophistication and an awareness of good etiquette and style

soi-disant   "self saying"
   What one claims about oneself; so-called, alleged

soigné   "taken care of"
   1. Sophisticated, elegant, fashionable
   2. Well-groomed, polished, refined 

soirée   "evening"
   In English, refers to an elegant party.

soupçon   "suspicion"
   Used figuratively like hint: There's just a soupçon of garlic in the soup.

souvenir   "memory, keepsake"
   A memento

succès d'estime   "success of estime"
   Important but unpopular success or achievement

succès fou   "crazy success"
   Wild success

tableau vivant   "living picture"
   A scene composed of silent, motionless actors

table d'hôte   "host table"
   1. A table for all guests to sit together
   2. A fixed-price meal with multiple courses

tête-à-tête   "head to head"
   A private talk or visit with another person

toilette   "toilet"
   In French, this refers both to the toilet itself and anything related to toiletries; thus the expression "to do one's toilette," meaning to brush hair, do makeup, etc. 

touché   "touched"
   Originally used in fencing, now equivalent to "you got me."

tour de force   "turn of strength"
   Something that takes a great deal of strength or skill to accomplish.

tout de suite   "right away"
   Due to the silent e in de, this is often misspelled "toot sweet" in English.

trompe l'œil   "trick the eye"
   A painting style that uses perspective to trick the eye into thinking it is real. In French, trompe l'œil can also refer in general to artifice and trickery.

vieux jeu   "old game"
   Old-fashioned

vis-à-vis (de)   "face to face"
   In English vis-à-vis or vis-a-vis means "compared to" or "in relation with": vis-a-vis this decision means vis-à-vis de cette décision. Note than in French, it must be followed by the preposition de.

Vive la France !   "(Long) live France"  Essentially the French equivalent of saying "God bless America." 

Voilà !   "There it is!"
   Take care to spell this correctly. It is not "voilá" or "violà."

vol-au-vent   "flight of the wind"
   In both French and English, a vol-au-vent is a very light pastry shell filled with meat or fish with sauce.

Voulez-vous coucher avec moi ce soir ?   "Do you want to sleep with me tonight?"
   An unusual phrase in that English speakers use it far more than French speakers

Ballet and Cooking Terms

French has also given English scores of words in the domains of ballet and cooking. The literal meanings of the adopted French words are (in parentheses).

Ballet: barre (bar), chaîné (chained), chassé (chased), développé (developed), effacé (shaded), pas de deux (two step), pirouette (turn), plié (bent), relevé (lifted).

Cooking: blanch (to lighten in color, parboil; from blanchir), sauté (fried over high heat), fondue (melted), purée (crushed), flambée (burned).


Test your understanding of the above with this quiz.