Learn How to Conjugate the Japanese Verb "Suru"

The Common Irregular Verb For "To Do"

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One of the most common irregular verbs used in Japanese is "suru", which translates to "to do." In this article, you will learn how to conjugate this irregular verb.

While "suru" translates most simply as "to do", it has many different meaning and purposes depending on how it is used. Thus, this article will also explain how "suru" is used to explain the senses, make a decision, accompany loan words, and so on.

The following charts and explanations will help you understand how to use "suru".

Conjugation Table

Use this table to help conjugate the irregular Japanese verb "suru" in present tense, past tense, conditional, imperative, and more. 

suru (to do)
Informal Present
(Dictionary Form)
suru
する
Formal Present
(~ masu Form)
shimasu
します
Informal Past 
(~ ta Form)
shita
した
Formal Past shimashita
しました
Informal Negative
(~ nai Form)
shinai
しない
Formal Negativeshimasen
しません
Informal Past Negativeshinakatta
しなかった
Formal Past Negativeshimasen deshita
しませんでした
~ te Formshite
して
Conditionalsureba
すれば
Volitionalshiyou
しよう
Passivesareru
される
Causativesaseru
させる
Potentialdekiru
できる
Imperative
(Command)
shiro
しろ

Sentence Examples

Now that you know how to conjugate the verb, how do you integrate it into a sentence? Here are a few sentence examples that use "suru". 

Shukudai o shimashita ka.
宿題をしましたか。
Did you do your homework?
Asu made ni shite kudasai.
明日までにしてください。
Please do it by tomorrow.
Sonna koto dekinai!
そんなことできない!
I can't do such a thing!

To Complete an Action

The verb "suru" has many extended uses that you'll run across frequently. While it means "to do" on its own, it can take on a different meaning with the addition of an adjective or depending on the situation.

Suru is also used in the phrase to convey doing an action. The phrase structure is: adverb form of I-adjective + suru . To change I-adjective to adverb form, replace the final ~i with ~ku. (e.g. ookii ---> ookiku)

Here is a sentence exmaple of "suru" used convey a completed action. 

Terebi no oto o ookiku shita.
テレビの音を大きくした。
I turned up the volume of the TV.

Adverb form of Na-adjective + suru
To change Na-adjective to adverb form, replace the final ~na with ~ni. (e.g. kireina ---> kireini)

Heya o kireini suru.
部屋をきれいにする。
I'm cleaning the room.

To Decide

"Suru" is also used when making a decision. It should be used when you are choosing from several available alternatives. Here are a couple sentence example. 

Koohii ni shimasu.
コーヒーにします。
I'll have coffee.
Kono tokei ni shimasu.
この時計にします。
I'll take this watch.

To Price

When accompanied by phrases indicating prices, it means "cost."

Kono kaban wa gosen en shimashita.
このかばんは五千円しました。
This bag cost 5,000 yen.

The Senses

"Suru" is also used when the verb of the sentences involves one of the 5 senses: sight, smell, sound, touch, and taste.

Ii nioi ga suru.
いい匂いがする。
It smells good.
Nami no oto ga suru.
波の音がする。
I hear the sound of the waves.

Loan Word + Suru

Loan words are words that are adopted from another language phonetically. In Japanese, loan words will be written using characters that sound similar to it. The loan words are often combined with "suru" to change the word into a verb.

doraibu suru
ドライブする
to drivetaipu suru
タイプする
to type
kisu suru
キスする
to kissnokku suru
ノックする
to knock

Noun (of Chinese origin) + Suru

When combined with nouns of Chinese origin, "suru" turns the noun into a verb.

benkyou suru
勉強する
to studysentaku suru
洗濯する
to do the washing
ryokou suru
旅行する
to travelshitsumon suru
質問する
to ask questions
denwa suru
電話する
to telephoneyakusoku suru
約束する
to promise
sanpo suru
散歩する
to take a walkyoyaku suru
予約する
to reserve
shokuji suru
食事する
to have a mealsouji suru
掃除する
to clean
kekkon suru
結婚する
to get marriedkaimono suru
買い物する
to shop
setsumei suru
説明する
to explainjunbi suru
準備する
to prepare

Note that the particle "o" can be used as an object particle after a noun. (e.g. "benkyou o suru," "denwa o suru") There is no difference in meaning with or without "o."

Adverb or Onomatopoetic expression + Suru

Adverbs or onomatopoeic expressions can be combined with " suru" to change them into verbs.

yukkuri suru
ゆっくりする
to stay longbon'yari suru
ぼんやりする
to be absent minded
nikoniko suru
ニコニコする
to smilewaku waku suru
ワクワクする
to be excited
 
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Abe, Namiko. "Learn How to Conjugate the Japanese Verb "Suru"." ThoughtCo, Nov. 20, 2017, thoughtco.com/how-to-conjugate-suru-4058480. Abe, Namiko. (2017, November 20). Learn How to Conjugate the Japanese Verb "Suru". Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/how-to-conjugate-suru-4058480 Abe, Namiko. "Learn How to Conjugate the Japanese Verb "Suru"." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/how-to-conjugate-suru-4058480 (accessed November 21, 2017).