Languages › Japanese Learn How to Conjugate the Japanese Verb "Suru" The Common Irregular Verb for "to Do" Share Flipboard Email Print Tang Ming Tung / Getty Images Japanese Japanese Grammar History & Culture Essential Japanese Vocabulary By Namiko Abe Japanese Language Expert B.A., Kwansei Gakuin University Namiko Abe is a Japanese language teacher and translator, as well as a Japanese calligraphy expert. She has been a freelance writer for nearly 20 years. our editorial process Namiko Abe Updated March 18, 2020 One of the most common irregular verbs used in the Japanese language is "suru", which, when translated into English, means "to do." Conjugation Table Conjugation of the irregular Japanese verb "suru" into present tense, past tense, conditional, imperative, and more: suru (to do) Informal Present(Dictionary Form) suruする Formal Present(~ masu Form) shimasuします Informal Past (~ ta Form) shitaした Formal Past shimashitaしました Informal Negative(~ nai Form) shinaiしない Formal Negative shimasenしません Informal Past Negative shinakattaしなかった Formal Past Negative shimasen deshitaしませんでした ~ te Form shiteして Conditional surebaすれば Volitional shiyouしよう Passive sareruされる Causative saseruさせる Potential dekiruできる Imperative(Command) shiroしろ Sentence Examples A few sentence examples using "suru": Shukudai o shimashita ka.宿題をしましたか。 Did you do your homework? Asu made ni shite kudasai.明日までにしてください。 Please do it by tomorrow. Sonna koto dekinai!そんなことできない！ I can't do such a thing! To Complete an Action The verb "suru" has many commonly-used applications. While it means "to do" on its own, with the addition of an adjective or depending upon the situation, it can take on a number of different meanings from describing the senses to making a decision to accompanying loan words. Suru is used in phrases conveying execution of an action. The phrase structure: adverb form of I-adjective + suru . To change I-adjective to adverb form, replace the final ~i with ~ku. (e.g. ookii ---> ookiku) A sentence example of "suru" used to convey a completed action: Terebi no oto o ookiku shita.テレビの音を大きくした｡ I turned up the volume of the TV. Adverb form of Na-adjective + suruTo change Na-adjective to adverb form, replace the final ~na with ~ni:(e.g. kireina ---> kireini): Heya o kireini suru.部屋をきれいにする｡ I'm cleaning the room. To Decide "Suru" can be used to exemplify making a decision from several different options: Koohii ni shimasu.コーヒーにします｡ I'll have coffee. Kono tokei ni shimasu.この時計にします｡ I'll take this watch. To Price When accompanied by phrases indicating prices, it means "cost": Kono kaban wa gosen en shimashita.このかばんは五千円しました｡ This bag cost 5,000 yen. The Senses "Suru" can be used when the verb of the sentence involves one of the 5 senses of sight, smell, sound, touch, or taste: Ii nioi ga suru.いい匂いがする｡ It smells good. Nami no oto ga suru.波の音がする｡ I hear the sound of the waves. Loan Word + Suru Loan words are words adopted from another language phonetically. In Japanese, loan words are written using characters which sound similar to the original word. Loan words are often combined with "suru" to change them into verbs: doraibu suruドライブする to drive taipu suruタイプする to type kisu suruキスする to kiss nokku suruノックする to knock Noun (of Chinese origin) + Suru When combined with nouns of Chinese origin, "suru" turns the noun into a verb: benkyou suru勉強する to study sentaku suru洗濯する to do the washing ryokou suru旅行する to travel shitsumon suru質問する to ask questions denwa suru電話する to telephone yakusoku suru約束する to promise sanpo suru散歩する to take a walk yoyaku suru予約する to reserve shokuji suru食事する to have a meal souji suru掃除する to clean kekkon suru結婚する to get married kaimono suru買い物する to shop setsumei suru説明する to explain junbi suru準備する to prepare Note the particle "o" can be used as an object particle after a noun. (e.g. "benkyou o suru," "denwa o suru") There is no difference in meaning with or without "o." Adverb or Onomatopoetic expression + Suru Adverbs or onomatopoeic expressions combined with " suru" become verbs: yukkuri suruゆっくりする to stay long bon'yari suruぼんやりする to be absent minded nikoniko suruニコニコする to smile waku waku suruワクワクする to be excited The Extended Use of the Verb "Suru" The 3 Japanese Verb Groups All About Japanese Adjectives Common Loan Words in Japanese Verbs of Change: Naru How to Conjugate the Japanese Verb "Kuru" (to Come) Learn How to Conjugate Japanese Verbs The Difference Between "Kudasai" and "Onegaishimasu" in Japanese Specificity of Japanese Verbs 'to Wear' and 'to Play' Japanese Lesson: Particles "O" and "No" Japanese Verb Conjugations: Group Two Expressions of Ability and Potential Verbs in Japanese Japanese Verb Conjugations Using the Verb "Te" in Japanese How to Use the Conditional Form "~Ba" in Japanese Ari no mama de - The Japanese Version of "Let It Go"