Science, Tech, Math › Science How to Find the Symbol of an Ion Atomic Ion Worked Chemistry Problem Share Flipboard Email Print Tetra Images / Getty Images Science Chemistry Basics Chemical Laws Molecules Periodic Table Projects & Experiments Scientific Method Biochemistry Physical Chemistry Medical Chemistry Chemistry In Everyday Life Famous Chemists Activities for Kids Abbreviations & Acronyms Biology Physics Geology Astronomy Weather & Climate By Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Chemistry Expert Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. our editorial process Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Updated November 19, 2019 This worked chemistry problem demonstrates how to determine the symbol for the ion when given the number of protons and electrons. Problem: Give the symbol of an ion that has 10 e- and 7 p+. Solution: The notation e- refers to electrons and p+ refers to protons. The number of protons is an element's atomic number. Use the periodic table to find the element with an atomic number of 7. This element is nitrogen, which has the symbol N. The problem states that there are more electrons than protons, so we know the ion has a negative net charge. Determine the net charge by looking at the difference in the number of protons and electrons: 10 - 7 = 3 more electrons than protons, or a 3- charge. Answer: N3- Conventions for Writing Ions When writing the symbol for an ion, the one- or two-letter element symbol is written first, followed by a superscript. The superscript has the number of charges on the ion followed by a + (for positive ions or cations) or - (for negative ions or anions). Neutral atoms have a charge of zero, so no superscript is given. If the charge is +/- one, the "1" is omitted. So, for example, the charge on a chlorine ion would be written as Cl-, not Cl1-. General Guidelines for Finding Ions When the numbers of protons and electrons are given, it's easy to figure out the ionic charge. More often, you won't be given this information. You can use the periodic table to predict many ions. The first group (alkali metals) usually have a +1 charge; the second group (alkaline earths) usually have a +2 charge; halogens usually have a -1 charge; and noble gases typically don't form ions. The metals form a wide variety of ions, usually with a positive charge.