HTML Codes - Mathematical Symbols

Commonly Used Symbols in Science and Mathematics

Young boy writes math equations on chalkboard
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If you write anything scientific or mathematical on the internet you will quickly find the need for several special characters that are not readily available on your keyboard.

This table contains many common mathematical operators and symbols. These codes are presented with an extra space between the ampersand and the code. To use these codes, delete the extra space. It should be mentioned that not all symbols are supported by all browsers.

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More complete code lists are available.

CharacterDisplayedHTML Code
plus or minus±& #177; or & plusmn;
dot product (center dot)·& #183; or & middot;
multiplication sign×& #215; or & times;
division sign÷& #247; or & divide;
square root radical& #8730; or & radic;
function 'f'ƒ& #402; or & fnof;
partial differential& #8706; or & part;
integral& #8747; or & int;
nabla or 'curl' symbol& #8711; or & nabla;
angle& #8736; or & ang;
orthogonal or perpendicular to& #8869; or & perp;
proportional to& #8733; or & prop;
congruent& #8773; or & cong;
similar to or asymptotic to& #8776; or & asymp;
not equal to& #8800; or & ne;
identical to& #8801; or & equiv;
less than or equal to& #8804; or & le;
greater than or equal to& #8805; or & ge;
superscript 2 (squared)²& #178; or & sup2;
superscript 3 (cubed)³& #179; or & sup3;
quarter¼& #188; or & frac14;
half½& #189; or & frac12;
three quarters¾& #190; or & frac34;