HTML Codes - Variables and Symbols

Commonly Used Symbols in Science and Mathematics

Equations on Blackboard
Jeffrey Coolidge/The Image Bank/Getty Images

If you write anything scientific or mathematical on the internet you will quickly find the need for several special characters that are not readily available on your keyboard.

This table contains symbols like the Angstrom and degree sign as well as various arrows which could be used for chemical reactions. These codes are presented with an extra space between the ampersand and the code. To use these codes, delete the extra space.

It should be mentioned that not all symbols are supported by all browsers. Check before you publish.

More complete code lists are available.

HTML Codes for Symbols in Chemistry and Mathematics

CharacterDisplayedHTML Code
vertical bar|& #124;
degree sign°& #176; or & deg;
A with circle (Angstrom)Å& #197; or & Aring;
circle with slash (null symbol)ø& #248; or & oslash;
micro symbolμ& #956; or & mu;
piπ& #960; or & pi;
infinity& #8734; or & infin;
therefore& #8756; or & there4;
left pointing arrow& #8592; or & larr;
up pointing arrow& #8593; or & uarr;
right pointing arrow& #8594; or & rarr;
down pointing arrow& #8595; or & darr;
left and right arrow& #8596; or & harr;
left pointing double arrow& #8656; or & lArr;
up pointing double arrow& #8657; or & uArr;
right pointing double arrow& #8658; or & rArr;
down pointing double arrow& #8659; or & dArr;
left and right double arrow& #8660; or & hArr;