Easy Identification and Aging of American Ginseng

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Easy Identification and Aging of American Ginseng

panax_bigelow.jpg
American Ginseng, Panax quinquefolius. Jacob Bigelow (1786-1879),

American ginseng was understood to be a significant healing herb in America as early as the 18th century. Panax quinquefolius became one of the first non-timber forest products (NTFP) to be collected in the colonies and was found in plenty through the Appalachian region and later in the Ozarks.

Ginseng is still a much sought-after botanical in North America but has been been heavily harvested and becoming locally scarce due to habitat destruction. The plant is now increasing in rarity throughout the United States and Canada and collection is legally limited by season and quantity in many forests.

The image I use to help in the plant's identification was drawn nearly 200 years ago by Jacob Bigelow (1787 - 1879) and published in a medical botanical book called American Medical Botany. This "Botany" book was described as "a collection of  native medicinal plants of the United States, containing their botanical history, chemical analysis, properties and uses in medicine, diet and the arts". It was published in Boston by Cummings and Hilliard,1817-1820.

Identification of Panax Quinquefolius

American ginseng develops just one "pronged" leaf with several leaflets the first year.  A maturing plant will continue to increase the number of prongs as you can see in the Bigelow illustration of a mature plant that displays three prongs, each with  five-leaflets (two small, three large). All leaflet edges are finely toothed or serrated. The Bigelow print exaggerates the serration sizes from what I have normally seen.

Note that these prongs radiate out of a central peduncle - which is at the leaf end of a green stem and also supports a raceme (lower left on illustration) that develops flowers and seed. The green non-woody stem can help you identify the plant from similar looking brown woody stemmed plants like Virginia creeper and seedling hickory. Early summer brings flowers that develop into brilliant red seed in the fall. It takes about three years for the plant to begin the produce these seed and this will continue for the rest of its life.

W. Scott Persons, in  his book American Ginseng, Green Gold, says the best way to identify "sang" during the digging season is to look for the red berries. These berries, plus the unique yellowing leaves toward the end of the season make excellent field markers.

These berries naturally drop from wild ginseng and regenerate new plants. There are 2 seeds in each red capsule. Collectors are encouraged to scatter these seed near any plant that is collected. Dropping these seed near its collected parent will ensure future seedlings in a suitable habitat.

Mature ginseng is harvested for its unique root and collected for many reasons including  medicinal and cooking purposes. This valuable root is fleshy and can have the appearance of a human leg or arm. Older plants have roots in human shapes which inspired common names like include man root, five fingers and root of life. The rhizome often develops multiple root forks shape as it ages past five years.

Determining the Age of Panax Quinquefolius

Here are two ways you can estimate the age of wild ginseng plants before you harvest. You must be able to do this to abide by any legal harvest age limit and to assure an adequate future crop. The two methods are: (1) by leaf prong count and (2) by rhizome leaf scar count. at the root neck.

Leaf prong count method:   Ginseng plants can have from one to as many as four palmately compound leaf prongs. Each prong can have as few as 3 leaflets but most will have 5 leaflets and should be considered mature plants (see illustration).  So, plants with 3 leaf prongs are legally considered to be at least 5 years old.  Many states with wild ginseng harvest programs have regulations in place that prohibit the harvest of plants with fewer than 3 prongs and assumed to be less than 5 years old.

Leaf scar count method:  The age of a ginseng plant can also be determined by counting the number of stem scars off the rhizome/root neck attachment.  Each year of plant growth adds a stem scar to the rhizome after every stem dies back in the fall. These scars can be seen by carefully removing the soil around the area where the plant's rhizome joins the fleshy root. Count the stem scars on the rhizome. A five year old Panax will have 4 stem scars on the rhizome. Carefully cover your below ground root digging with soil.

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Nix, Steve. "Easy Identification and Aging of American Ginseng." ThoughtCo, Feb. 9, 2015, thoughtco.com/identification-of-american-ginseng-1342657. Nix, Steve. (2015, February 9). Easy Identification and Aging of American Ginseng. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/identification-of-american-ginseng-1342657 Nix, Steve. "Easy Identification and Aging of American Ginseng." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/identification-of-american-ginseng-1342657 (accessed November 24, 2017).